Cisco Certified Network Associate 200-301 CCNA Exam Questions and Answers – Page 2

The latest Cisco Certified Network Associate 200-301 CCNA certification actual real practice exam question and answer (Q&A) dumps are available free, which are helpful for you to pass the Cisco Certified Network Associate 200-301 CCNA exam and earn Cisco Certified Network Associate 200-301 CCNA certification.

Exam Question 121

Which is the shortest possible notation of the following Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) address?
2001:0DB8:0000:0001:0000:0000:0000:F00D
A. 2001:DB8::1::F00D
B. 2001:DB8:0:1::F00D
C. 2001:DB8:0:1:0:0:0:F00D
D. 2001:0DB8:0:1::F00D

Correct Answer:
B. 2001:DB8:0:1::F00D
Answer Description:
The shortest possible notation of the IPv6 address 2001:0DB8:0000:0001:0000:0000:0000:F00D is 2001:DB8:0:1::F00D. The address is shortened according to the following rules:

  • Remove leading zeros.
  • Remove the consecutive fields of zeros with double colon (::).
  • The double colon (::) can be used only once.

The option 2001:DB8::1::F00D is incorrect because the double colon (::) can be used only once in the process of shortening an IPv6 address.

The option 2001:DB8:0:1:0:0:0:F00D is incorrect because 2001:DB8:0:1:0:0:0:F00D can be further shortened to 2001:DB8:0:1::F00D.

The option 2001:0DB8:0:1::F00D is incorrect because 2001:0DB8:0:1::F00D can be further shortened to 2001:DB8:0:1::F00D.

Objective: Network Fundamentals
Sub-Objective: Compare and contrast IPv6 address types

Exam Question 122

You have connected two routers in a lab using a Data Terminal Equipment (DTE)-to-Data Circuit-terminating Equipment (DCE) cable.
Which command must be issued on the DCE end for the connection to function?
A. bandwidth
B. no clock rate
C. clock rate
D. no bandwidth

Correct Answer:
C. clock rate
Answer Description:
You should issue the clock rate command on the DCE end for the connection to function. The clock rate is set on the Data Circuit-terminating Equipment (DCE) device. DCE is also known as Data Communications Equipment.

The DCE terminates a physical WAN connection, provides clocking and synchronization of a connection between two locations, and connects to a DTE. The DCE category includes equipment such as CSU/DSUs, NT1s, and modems. In the real world, the clock rate is provided by the CSU/DSU end at the telcom provider. In a lab, you must instruct the DCE end to provide a clock rate.

The DTE is an end user device, such as a router or a PC, which connects to the WAN via the DCE device.

You would not issue the bandwidth command. This command is used to inform the router of the bandwidth of the connection for purposes of calculating best routes to locations where multiple routes exist. It is not necessary for the link described to function.

You should not issue the no clock rate command. This command is used to remove any previous settings implemented with the clock rate command.

You would not issue the no bandwidth command. This command is used to remove any previous settings implemented with the bandwidth command

Objective: WAN Technologies
Sub-Objective: Describe WAN access connectivity options

Exam Question 123

Why is it recommended to use Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) in Local Area Networks (LANs) with redundant paths?
A. To prevent loops
B. To manage VLANs
C. To load balance across different paths
D. To prevent forwarding of unnecessary broadcast traffic on trunk links

Correct Answer:
A. To prevent loops
Answer Description:
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) is a Layer 2 protocol used in LANs to maintain a loop-free network topology by recognizing physical redundancy in the network and logically blocking one or more redundant ports.

An example of switch redundancy is shown in the diagram below. The connection from SW4 to SW2, while providing beneficial redundancy, introduces the possibility of a switching loop.

While providing beneficial redundancy, introduces the possibility of a switching loop.
While providing beneficial redundancy, introduces the possibility of a switching loop.

STP probes the network at regular intervals to identify the failure or addition of a link, switch, or bridge. In the case of any topology changes, STP reconfigures switch ports to prevent loops. The end result is one active Layer 2 path through the switch network.

STP is not used for management of Virtual Local Area Networks (VLANs). VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) simplifies the management of VLANs by propagating configuration information throughout the switching fabric whenever changes are made. In the absence of VTP, switch VLAN information would have to be configured manually.

STP is not used to load-balance traffic across different redundant paths available in a topology. Load balancing allows a router to use multiple paths to a destination network. Routing protocols, Routing Information Protocol (RIP), RIPv2, Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP), Enhanced IGRP (EIGRP), and Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) support load balancing. Similarly, multiple links can be combined in a faster single link in switches. This can be achieved with the Fast EtherChannel or Gigabit EtherChannel features of Cisco switches.

STP does not prevent forwarding of unnecessary broadcast traffic on trunk links. This is achieved by manually configuring VLANs allowed on the trunk, or through VTP pruning.

Objective: LAN Switching Fundamentals
Sub-Objective: Configure, verify, and troubleshoot STP protocols

Exam Question 124

Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) uses which algorithm to select the best path to the destination?
A. Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL)
B. Dijkstra algorithm
C. Bellman-Ford algorithm
D. Shortest Path First (SPF) algorithm

Correct Answer:
A. Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL)
Answer Description:
EIGRP uses the Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL) to select the best path to the destination. EIGRP is a classless protocol that allows the use of variable length subnet masks (VLSM), and supports classless interdomain routing (CIDR) for the allocation of IP addresses.

EIGRP is characterized by these components:

  • DUAL: EIGRP implements DUAL to select paths free of routing loops. DUAL selects the best path and the second best path to the destination. The terminology used in DUAL is as follows:
    • Successor: Best path selected by DUAL.
    • Feasible successor: Second best path selected by DUAL. This is a backup route stored in the topology table.
    • Feasible distance: The lowest calculated metric of a path to destination.
  • Protocol-dependent modules: Different modules are used by EIGRP to independently support Internet Protocol (IP), Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX), and AppleTalk routed protocols. These modules act as a logical interface between DUAL and routing protocols.
  • Neighbor discovery and recovery: Neighbors are discovered and information about neighbors is maintained by EIGRP. A hello packet is multicast on 224.0.0.10 every five seconds and the router builds a table with the information. EIGRP also enables proper operation over a Non-Broadcast Multiple Access (NBMA) point-to-multipoint network. EIGRP multicasts a hello packet every 60 seconds on the multipoint Wide Area Network (WAN) interfaces (X.25, frame relay, or Asynchronous Transfer Mode).
  • Reliable Transport Protocol (RTP): RTP is used by EIGRP to manage EIGRP packets. Reliable and ordered delivery of route updates is ensured using RTP.

EIGRP updates about routes can contain five metrics: minimum bandwidth, delay, load, reliability, and maximum transmission unit (MTU). Of these five metrics, by default, only minimum bandwidth and delay are used to compute the best path.

The Dijkstra algorithm and Shortest Path First (SPF) algorithm are used by the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) routing protocol for selecting the best path to the destination, not by EIGRP.

The Bellman-Ford algorithm is used by Routing Information Protocol (RIP).

Objective: Routing Fundamentals
Sub-Objective: Compare and contrast interior and exterior routing protocols

Exam Question 125

Examine the following output from SwitchD.

Examine the following output from SwitchD.
Examine the following output from SwitchD.

Based on this output, what command MUST be executed for an 802.1q trunk to be created on port Fa0/1?
A. switchport mode trunk
B. switchport mode nonegotiate
C. switchport trunk encapsulation 802.1q
D. switchport trunk native VLAN

Correct Answer:
A. switchport mode trunk
Answer Description:
The command switchport mode trunk must be executed for a trunk to form. The output indicates that the Administrative Mode of the port is “static access,” which means the port has been configured as a static (fixed) access port. Access mode disables trunking on an access port.

Below is a sample of the configuration required to allow a router to provide inter-VLAN routing between two VLANs residing on the switch:

Sample of the configuration required to allow a router to provide inter-VLAN routing between two VLANs residing on the switch
Sample of the configuration required to allow a router to provide inter-VLAN routing between two VLANs residing on the switch

For this example, the following statements are true:

  • The trunk link connects to Fa0/0 on the router and Fa0/1 on the switch.
  • The physical interface F0/0 on the router has been divided into two subinterfaces, Fa0/0.1 and Fa0/0.2.
  • The encapsulation type of 802.1q has been specified on the two subinterfaces of the router.
  • The physical interface on the switch has been specified as a trunk link.
  • The IP addresses 192.168.10.1 and 192.168.20.1 should be the default gateways of the computers located in VLANs 1 and 2, respectively.

The switchport mode nonegotiate command does not need to be executed because the switch is already configured for non-negotiation, as indicated by the output Negotiation of Trunking: Off. Trunk negotiation using the Dynamic Trunking Protocol (DTP) does not need to be enabled for a trunk to form.

The switchport trunk encapsulation 802.1q command does not need to be executed for a trunk to form. Also, the output Operational Trunking Encapsulation: dot1q indicates that 802.1q encapsulation is already configured.

The switchport trunk native VLAN command does not need to be executed. This command is used to change the native VLAN from its default of 1, but leaving it set to the default of 1 will not prevent the trunk from forming.

Objective: Routing Fundamentals
Sub-Objective: Configure, verify, and troubleshoot inter-VLAN routing

Exam Question 126

As you are training a new junior technician, the trainee is examining the routing table. He tells you that there are four different routes to the same network in different routing databases. He asks you which of the routes will be used to populate the routing table.
What will your answer be, assuming that all routing protocols are set at the default administrative distance?
A. The route with an R next to it
B. The route with an S next to it
C. The route with a C next to it
D. The route with an I next to it

Correct Answer:
C. The route with a C next to it
Answer Description:
The route with a C next to it is a directly connected route and has an administrative distance of 0, which means it will be preferred over any routes with a larger value for administrative distance. Each routing protocol has a default administrative distance assigned. Administrative distance is used by the router to determine the preferred route when a route is learned from different routing protocols. This process can be manipulated by the administrator by using the distance command to alter the default assignments.

It is significant to note that routers with no static routes and no routing protocols enabled will populate all directly connected routes to the routing table with no action on the part of the administrator. Routes that are NOT directly connected will not be in the routing table unless one of two things occurs:

  • A static route is created by the administrator
  • A routing protocol is enabled that allows the router to learn about the network and its route from another router running the same routing protocol

For example, in the diagram below, R3 will have routes to the 192.168.3.0/24 ,192.168.1.0/24 and the 192.168.0.0/24 networks in its routing table by default. It will only have routes to the 192.168.2.0/24, 192.168.5.0/24, and 192.168.6.0/24 networks if a routing protocol is used or if an administrator creates static routes for each network.

It will only have routes to the 192.168.2.0/24, 192.168.5.0/24, and 192.168.6.0/24 networks if a routing protocol is used or if an administrator creates static routes for each network.
It will only have routes to the 192.168.2.0/24, 192.168.5.0/24, and 192.168.6.0/24 networks if a routing protocol is used or if an administrator creates static routes for each network.

When a packet is received by a router interface, the router de-encapsulates the frame or removes the layer two information (MAC data for Ethernet or DLCIs for frame relay) and then performs a lookup for the network ID of the network in which the destination IP address resides. When multiple routes exist, it will choose the one with the lowest administrative distance. The router only places the route with the lowest distance in the table.

The route with an R next to it is a route learned from Routing Information Protocol (RIP). It has a default administrative distance of 120, so it will not prefer over a directly connected route.

The route with an S next to it is a static route or one configured manually. It has an administrative distance of 1, so it will not be preferred over a directly connected route.

The route with an I next to it is a route learned from Internal Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP). It has an administrative distance of 100, so it will not be preferred over a directly connected route.

Objective: Routing Fundamentals
Sub-Objective: Interpret the components of routing table

Exam Question 127

What command can be used on a Cisco switch to display the virtual MAC address for the HSRP groups of which the switch is a member?
A. switch# show standby mac
B. switch# show hsrp mac
C. switch# show standby
D. switch# show standby brief

Correct Answer:
C. switch# show standby
Answer Description:
The command show standby can be used to display the virtual MAC address for HSRP groups of which a switch is a member. This command displays information about HSRP on all configured interfaces and for all HSRP groups. It also displays hello timer information and the expiration timer for the standby switch. The standby switch will take over as the active switch if the timer expires before it hears a heartbeat from the active switch. Below is an example of the show standby command for the HSRP group 1:

Below is an example of the show standby command for the HSRP group 1.
Below is an example of the show standby command for the HSRP group 1.

In the above output, the following can be determined:

  • The router is currently active for the group, as can be seen in line 2. The Active Virtual MAC address is 0006.6b45.5801, which includes the group number (1) in the last two positions, which is why the address is different from the routers actual MAC address shown on the next line. Special Note: Some router models (Cisco 2500, 4000 and 4500) WILL NOT use this altered MAC address format, but will instead use the real MAC address for the virtual MAC address and will display that MAC address as the virtual MAC address in the output of the show standby command. An example of the output of the show standby command on an older router such as the 2500 would be as follows:
An example of the output of the show standby command on an older router such as the 2500 would be as follows.
An example of the output of the show standby command on an older router such as the 2500 would be as follows.

These routers have Ethernet hardware that only recognize a single MAC address. In either case, if for some reason this router becomes the standby router, such as due to loss of interfaces, then when the interfaces come back up it will be able to recover the active role because it is set for preemption, as shown on line 10.

  • The router is tracking two of its own interfaces. Because both interfaces are down, the router’s priority has been reduced by 25 (15 for Fastethernet0/2 and 10 for Fastethernet0/3), from the configured value of 120 to 95. This data is shown on lines 13-16. The default is 10 if not otherwise specified, as is the case for Fastethernet0/3.
  • If either of the two interfaces comes back up, the priority will be increased by the amount assigned to the interface. For example, if Fastethernet0/3 comes back up, the priority will become 105 (95 + 10).
  • The standby router is unreachable, which can be determined because it is marked unknown expired in line 12. This could be due to either a physical layer issue or an HSRP misconfiguration.

The command show standby brief can be used to view summary information about HSRP groups of which the switch is a member. This information includes the group number, priority, state, active device address, standby address, and group address. It does not include the virtual MAC address.

The commands show standby mac and show hsrp mac are invalid due to incorrect syntax.

Objective: Infrastructure Services
Sub-Objective: Configure, verify, and troubleshoot basic HSRP

Exam Question 128

Which of the following statements are NOT true, based on the output below?

Which of the following statements are NOT true, based on the output below?
Which of the following statements are NOT true, based on the output below?

A. This switch is the root bridge.
B. This switch has a priority of 32778.
C. This switch has a MAC address of 0015.63f6.b700.
D. All ports will be in a state of discarding, learning, or forwarding.
E. All designated ports are in a forwarding state.
F. This switch is using the default priority for STP

Correct Answer:
A. This switch is the root bridge.
C. This switch has a MAC address of 0015.63f6.b700.
Answer Description:
The upper half of the output provides information about the root bridge. It indicates that the root bridge has a bridge priority of 24586 and a MAC address of 0015.63f6.b700. The bottom half of the output pertains to the current switch, and indicates that this switch has a bridge priority of 32778 and a MAC address of 000f.f794.3d00.

The value of the switch bridge priority is arrived at by adding the configured priority of 32768, which is indicated by the line priority 32768 sys-id-ext 10, to the VLAN ID of 10. Because 32768 is the default bridge priority for STP, this switch is set to the default priority for STP.

The priority of this switch is 32778. The bridge priority is arrived at by adding the configured priority of 32768 to the VLAN ID of 10.

This switch is not the root bridge, as indicated by the differences in priorities and MAC addresses between the root ID and the bridge ID output. If this were the root bridge, the MAC addresses and priority values would be the same in both the Root ID and the Bridge ID sections.

Finally, when a switch is using RSTP, as indicated by the output Spanning tree enabled protocol rstp, all ports will be in a state of discarding, learning, or forwarding, with all designated ports in a forwarding state. When RSTP has converged, all ports will be in either the discarding or forwarding states.

Objective: LAN Switching Fundamentals
Sub-Objective: Configure, verify, and troubleshoot STP protocols

Exam Question 129

Which of the following values will be used by a router to make a routing decision when two routes have been learned from OSPF?
A. cost
B. administrative distance
C. composite metric
D. hop count

Correct Answer:
A. cost
Answer Description:
When two routes have been learned by OSPF to same network, the best route will be chosen based on lowest cost. Cost is the metric used in OSPF to choose the best route from all candidate routes learned through OSPF.

Administrative distance is a measure of the trustworthiness of the routing information source. It is a value used by a router to choose between multiple known routes that have been learned from different routing sources, such as different routing protocols. When routes are learned from the same routing protocol, their administrative distance will be equal, and the router will then choose the route with the lowest metric value of the routing protocol. In this case, that metric is the OSPF cost.

The composite metric is the metric used by EIGRP to choose a route when multiple routes have been learned by EIGRP.

Hop count is the metric used by RIP to choose a route when multiple routes have been learned by RIP.

Objective: Routing Fundamentals
Sub-Objective: Describe how a routing table is populated by different routing information sources

Exam Question 130

On which of the following networks will OSPF elect a designated router (DR)? (Choose two.)
A. Broadcast
B. NBMA
C. Point-to-point
D. Point-to-multipoint

Correct Answer:
A. Broadcast
B. NBMA
Answer Description:
OSPF will perform an election for a designated router (DR) and backup designated router (BDR) on every multi-access network segment. Multi-access segments are defined as segments where more than two hosts can reach each other directly, such as a shared Ethernet segment (broadcast multi-access) or Frame Relay (non-broadcast multi-access, or NBMA).

DR and BDR elections do not occur on point-to-point or point-to-multipoint segments. Point-to-point and point-to-multipoint segments are not considered multi-access segments. OSPF routers on these network types will establish an adjacency without a DR/BDR election.

Objective: Routing Fundamentals
Sub-Objective: Configure, verify, and troubleshoot single area and multi-area OSPFv2 for IPv4 (excluding authentication, filtering, manual summarization, redistribution, stub, virtual-link, and LSAs)