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ISACA CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Exam Questions and Answers – 13

The latest ISACA CISA (Certified Information Systems Auditor) certification actual real practice exam question and answer (Q&A) dumps are available free, which are helpful for you to pass the ISACA CISA exam and earn ISACA CISA certification.

ISACA Certified Information Systems Auditor (CISA) Exam Questions and Answers

CISA Question 1311

Question

Which of the following statement correctly describes the differences between tunnel mode and transport mode of the IPSec protocol?

A. In transport mode the ESP is encrypted where as in tunnel mode the ESP and its header’s are encrypted
B. In tunnel mode the ESP is encrypted where as in transport mode the ESP and its header’s are encrypted
C. In both modes (tunnel and transport mode) the ESP and its header’s are encrypted
D. There is no encryption provided when using ESP or AH

Answer

A. In transport mode the ESP is encrypted where as in tunnel mode the ESP and its header’s are encrypted

Explanation

ESP can be used to provide confidentiality, data origin authentication, connectionless integrity, an anti-replay service (a form of partial sequence integrity), and (limited) traffic flow confidentiality. The set of services provided depends on options selected at the time of Security Association (SA) establishment and on the location of the implementation in a network topology. For your exam you should know the information below about the IPSec protocol:

The IP network layer packet security protocol establishes VPNs via transport and tunnel mode encryption methods.

For the transport method, the data portion of each packet is encrypted, encryption within IPSEC is referred to as the encapsulation security payload (ESP), it is ESP that provides confidentiality over the process.

In the tunnel mode, the ESP payload and its header’s are encrypted. To achieve non-repudiation, an additional authentication header (AH) is applied.

In establishing IPSec sessions in either mode, Security Associations (SAs) are established. SAs defines which security parameters should be applied between communicating parties as encryption algorithms, key initialization vector, life span of keys, etc. Within either ESP or AH header, respectively. An SAs is established when a 32-bit security parameter index (SPI) field is defined within the sending host. The SPI is unique identifier that enables the sending host to reference the security parameter to apply, as specified, on the receiving host.

IPSec can be made more secure by using asymmetric encryption through the use of Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol/Oakley (ISAKMP/Oakley), which allows automated key management, use of public keys, negotiation, establishment, modification and deletion of SAs and attributes. For authentication, the sender uses digital certificates. The connection is made secure by supporting the generation, authentication, distribution of the SAs and the cryptographic keys.

The following were incorrect answers:

  • The other options presented are invalid as the transport mode encrypts ESP and the tunnel mode encrypts ESP and its header’s.

CISA Question 1312

Question

Which of the following is a standard secure email protection protocol?

A. S/MIME
B. SSH
C. SET
D. S/HTTP

Answer

A. S/MIME

Explanation

Secure Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension (S/MIME) is a standard secure email protocol that authenticates the identity of the sender and receiver, verifies message integrity, and ensures the privacy of message’s content’s, including attachments.

The following were incorrect answers:

  • SSH – A client server program that opens a secure, encrypted command-line shell session from the Internet for remote logon. Similar to a VPN, SSH uses strong cryptography to protect data, including password, binary files and administrative commands, transmitted between system on a network. SSH is typically implemented between two parties by validating each other’s credential via digital certificates. SSH is useful in securing Telnet and FTP services, and is implemented at the application layer, as opposed to operating at network layer (IPSec Implementation)
  • SET – SET is a protocol developed jointly by VISA and Master Card to secure payment transaction among all parties involved in credit card transactions among all parties involved in credit card transactions on behalf of cardholders and merchants. As an open system specification, SET is a application-oriented protocol that uses trusted third party’s encryption and digital-signature process, via PKI infrastructure of trusted third party institutions, to address confidentiality of information, integrity of data, cardholders authentication, merchant authentication and interoperability.
  • Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (S/HTTP) – As an application layer protocol, S/HTTP transmits individual messages or pages securely between a web client and server by establishing SSL-type connection. Using the https:// designation in the URL, instead of the standard http://, directs the message to a secure port number rather than the default web port address. This protocol utilizes SSL secure features but does so as a message rather than the session-oriented protocol.

CISA Question 1313

Question

Which of the following statement correctly describes difference between SSL and S/HTTP?

A. Both works at application layer of OSI model
B. SSL works at transport layer where as S/HTTP works at application layer of OSI model
C. Both works at transport layer
D. S/HTTP works at transport layer where as SSL works at the application layer of OSI model

Answer

B. SSL works at transport layer where as S/HTTP works at application layer of OSI model

Explanation

For your exam you should know below information about S/HTTP and SSL protocol:

Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (S/HTTP) -As an application layer protocol, S/HTTP transmits individual messages or pages securely between a web client and server by establishing SSL-type connection. Using the https:// designation in the URL, instead of the standard http://, directs the message to a secure port number rather than the default web port address. This protocol utilizes SSL secure features but does so as a message rather than the session-oriented protocol.

Secure Socket Layer (SSL) and Transport Layer Security (TLS) – These are cryptographic protocols which provide secure communication on Internet. There are only slight difference between SSL 3.0 and TLS 1.0. For general concept both are called SSL.

SSL is session-connection layer protocol widely used on Internet for communication between browser and web servers, where any amount of data is securely transmitted while a session is established. SSL provides end point authentication and communication privacy over the Internet using cryptography. In typical use, only the server is authenticated while client remains unauthenticated. Mutual authentication requires PKI development to clients. The protocol allows application to communicate in a way designed to prevent eavesdropping, tampering and message forging.

SSL involves a number of basic phases

Peer negotiation for algorithm support

Public-key, encryption based key exchange and certificate based authentication

Symmetric cipher based traffic encryption.

SSL runs on a layer beneath application protocol such as HTTP, SMTP and Network News Transport Protocol (NNTP) and above the TCP transport protocol, which forms part of TCP/IP suite.

SSL uses a hybrid hashed, private and public key cryptographic processes to secure transmission over the INTERNET through a PKI.

The SSL handshake protocol is based on the application layer but provides for the security of the communication session too. It negotiates the security parameter for each communication section. Multiple session can belong to one SSL session and the participating in one session can take part in multiple simultaneous sessions.

The following were incorrect answers:

  • The other choices presented in the options are not valid asSSL works at transport layer where as S/HTTP works at application layer of OSI model.

CISA Question 1314

Question

Which of the following statement correctly describes one way SSL authentication between a client (e.g. browser) and a server (e.g. web server)?

A. Only the server is authenticated while client remains unauthenticated
B. Only the client is authenticated while server remains authenticated
C. Client and server are authenticated
D. Client and server are unauthenticated

Answer

A. Only the server is authenticated while client remains unauthenticated

Explanation

In one way authentication only server needs to be authenticated where as in mutual authentication both the client and the server needs to be authenticated.

For CISA exam you should know the information below about Secure Socket Layer (SSL) and Transport Layer Security (TLS)

These are cryptographic protocols which provide secure communication on Internet. There are only slight difference between SSL 3.0 and TLS 1.0. For general concept both are called SSL.

SSL is session-connection layer protocol widely used on Internet for communication between browser and web servers, where any amount of data is securely transmitted while a session is established. SSL provides end point authentication and communication privacy over the Internet using cryptography. In typical use, only the server is authenticated while client remains unauthenticated. Mutual authentication requires PKI development to clients. The protocol allows application to communicate in a way designed to prevent eavesdropping, tampering and message forging.

SSL involves a number of basic phases

Peer negotiation for algorithm support

Public-key, encryption based key exchange and certificate based authentication

Symmetric cipher based traffic encryption.

SSL runs on a layer beneath application protocol such as HTTP, SMTP and Network News Transport Protocol (NNTP) and above the TCP transport protocol, which forms part of TCP/IP suite.

SSL uses a hybrid hashed, private and public key cryptographic processes to secure transmission over the INTERNET through a PKI.

The SSL handshake protocol is based on the application layer but provides for the security of the communication session too. It negotiates the security parameter for each communication section. Multiple session can belong to one SSL session and the participating in one session can take part in multiple simultaneous sessions.

The following were incorrect answers:

  • The other choices presented in the options are not valid as in one way authentication only server needs to be authenticated whereas client will remain unauthenticated.

CISA Question 1315

Question

Which of the following functionality is NOT supported by SSL protocol?

A. Confidentiality
B. Integrity
C. Authentication
D. Availability

Answer

D. Availability

Explanation

CISA Question 1316

Question

Which of the following is NOT a true statement about public key infrastructure (PKI)?

A. The Registration authority role is to validate and issue digital certificates to end users
B. The Certificate authority role is to issue digital certificates to end users
C. The Registration authority (RA) acts as a verifier for Certificate Authority (CA)
D. Root certificate authority’s certificate is always self-signed

Answer

A. The Registration authority role is to validate and issue digital certificates to end users

Explanation

The word NOT is the keyword used in the question. We need to find out the invalid statement from the options.

A PKI (public key infrastructure) enables users of a basically unsecure public network such as the Internet to securely and privately exchange data and money through the use of a public and a private cryptographic key pair that is obtained and shared through a trusted authority. The public key infrastructure provides for a digital certificate that can identify an individual or an organization and directory services that can store and, when necessary, revoke the certificates. Although the components of a PKI are generally understood, a number of different vendor approaches and services are emerging. Meanwhile, an Internet standard for PKI is being worked on.

The public key infrastructure assumes the use of public key cryptography, which is the most common method on the Internet for authenticating a message sender or encrypting a message. Traditional cryptography has usually involved the creation and sharing of a secret key for the encryption and decryption of messages.

This secret or private key system has the significant flaw that if the key is discovered or intercepted by someone else, messages can easily be decrypted. For this reason, public key cryptography and the public key infrastructure is the preferred approach on the Internet. (The private key system is sometimes known as symmetric cryptography and the public key system as asymmetric cryptography.)

A public key infrastructure consists of:

  • A certificate authority (CA) that issues and verifies digital certificate. A certificate includes the public key or information about the public key
  • A registration authority (RA) that acts as the verifier for the certificate authority before a digital certificate is issued to a requester
  • A Subscriber is the end user who wish to get digital certificate from certificate authority.

The following were incorrect answers:

  • The Certificate authority role is to issue digital certificates to end users – This is a valid statement as the job of a certificate authority is to issue a digital certificate to end user.
  • The Registration authority (RA) acts as a verifier for Certificate Authority (CA) – This is a valid statement as registration authority acts as a verifier for certificate authority
  • Root certificate authority’s certificate is always self-signed – This is a valid statement as the root certificate authority’s certificate is always self signed.

CISA Question 1317

Question

How does the digital envelop work? What are the correct steps to follow?

A. You encrypt the data using a session key and then encrypt session key using private key of a sender
B. You encrypt the data using the session key and then you encrypt the session key using sender’s public key
C. You encrypt the data using the session key and then you encrypt the session key using the receiver’s public key
D. You encrypt the data using the session key and then you encrypt the session key using the receiver’s private key

Answer

C. You encrypt the data using the session key and then you encrypt the session key using the receiver’s public key

Explanation

The process of encrypting bulk data using symmetric key cryptography and then encrypting the session key using public key algorithm is referred as a digital envelope.

A Digital Envelope is used to send encrypted information using symmetric crypto cipher and then key session along with it. It is secure method to send electronic document without compromising the data integrity, authentication and non-repudiation, which were obtained with the use of symmetric keys.

A Digital envelope mechanism works as follows:

The symmetric key used to encrypt the message can be referred to as session key. The bulk of the message would take advantage of the high speed provided by Symmetric Cipher.

The session key must then be communicated to the receiver in a secure way to allow the receiver to decrypt the message.

If the session key is sent to receiver in the plain text, it could be captured in clear text over the network and anyone could access the session key which would lead to confidentiality being compromised.

Therefore it is critical to encrypt the session key with the receiver public key before sending it to the receiver. The receiver’s will use their matching private key to decrypt the session key which then allow them to decrypt the message using the session key.

The encrypted message and the encrypted session key are sent to the receiver who, in turn decrypts the session key with the receiver’s private key. The session key is then applied to the message cipher text to get the plain text.

The following were incorrect answers:

  • You encrypt the data using a session key and then encrypt session key using private key of a sender – If the session key is encrypted using sender’s private key, it can be decrypted only using sender’s public key. The sender’s public key is known to everyone so anyone can decrypt session key and message.
  • You encrypt the data using the session key and then you encrypt the session key using sender’s public key – If the session key is encrypted by using sender’s public key then only sender can decrypt the session key using his/her own private key and receiver will not be able to decrypt the same.
  • You encrypt the data using the session key and then you encrypt the session key using the receiver’s private key – Sender should not have access to receiver’s private key. This is not a valid option.

CISA Question 1318

Question

Which of the following is a form of Hybrid Cryptography where the sender encrypts the bulk of the data using Symmetric Key cryptography and then communicates securely a copy of the session key to the receiver?

A. Digital Envelope
B. Digital Signature
C. Symmetric key encryption
D. Asymmetric

Answer

A. Digital Envelope

Explanation

A Digital Envelope is used to send encrypted information using symmetric keys, and the relevant session key along with it. It is a secure method to send electronic document without compromising the data integrity, authentication and non-repudiation, which were obtained with the use of symmetric keys.

A Digital envelope mechanism works as follows:

The symmetric key, which is used to encrypt the bulk of the date or message can be referred to as session key. It is simply a symmetric key picked randomly in the key space.

In order for the receiver to have the ability to decrypt the message, the session key must be sent to the receiver.

This session key cannot be sent in clear text to the receiver, it must be protected while in transit, else anyone who have access to the network could have access to the key and confidentiality can easily be compromised.

Therefore, it is critical to encrypt and protect the session key before sending it to the receiver. The session key is encrypted using receiver’s public key. Thus providing confidentiality of the key.

The encrypted message and the encrypted session key are bundled together and then sent to the receiver who, in turn opens the session key with the receiver matching private key.

The session key is then applied to the message to get it in plain text.

The process of encrypting bulk data using symmetric key cryptography and encrypting the session key with a public key algorithm is referred as a digital envelope.

Sometimes people refer to it as Hybrid Cryptography as well.

The following were incorrect answers:

  • Digital-signature – A digital signature is an electronic identification of a person or entity created by using public key algorithm and intended to verify to recipient the integrity of the data and the identity of the sender. Applying a digital signature consist of two simple steps, first you create a message digest, then you encrypt the message digest with the sender’s private key. Encrypting the message digest with the private key is the act of signing the message.
  • Symmetric Key Encryption – Symmetric encryption is the oldest and best-known technique. A secret key, which can be a number, a word, or just a string of random letters, is applied to the text of a message to change the content in a particular way. This might be as simple as shifting each letter by a number of places in the alphabet. As long as both sender and recipient know the secret key, they can encrypt and decrypt all messages that use this key.
  • Asymmetric Key Encryption – The term “asymmetric” stems from the use of different keys to perform these opposite functions, each the inverse of the other – as contrasted with conventional (“symmetric”) cryptography which relies on the same key to perform both. Public-key algorithms are based on mathematical problems which currently admit no efficient solution that are inherent in certain integer factorization, discrete logarithm, and elliptic curve relationships. It is computationally easy for a user to generate their own public and private key-pair and to use them for encryption and decryption. The strength lies in the fact that it is “impossible” (computationally unfeasible) for a properly generated private key to be determined from its corresponding public key. Thus the public key may be published without compromising security, whereas the private key must not be revealed to anyone not authorized to read messages or perform digital signatures.
  • Public key algorithms, unlike symmetric key algorithms, do not require a secure initial exchange of one (or more) secret keys between the parties.

CISA Question 1319

Question

Which of the following cryptography demands less computational power and offers more security per bit?

A. Quantum cryptography
B. Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC)
C. Symmetric Key Cryptography
D. Asymmetric Key Cryptography

Answer

B. Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC)

Explanation

ECC demands less computational power and, therefore offers more security per bit. For example, an ECC with a 160-bit key offer the same security as an RSA based system with a 1024-bit key.

ECC is a variant and more efficient form of a public key cryptography (how tom manage more security out of minimum resources) gaining prominence is the ECC.

ECC works well on a network computer requires strong cryptography but have some limitation such as bandwidth and processing power. This is even more important with devices such as smart cards, wireless phones and other mobile devices.

The following were incorrect answers:

  • Quantum Cryptography – Quantum cryptography is based on a practical application of the characteristics of the smallest -grain- of light, photons and on physical laws governing their generation, propagation and detection. Quantum cryptography is the next generation of cryptography that may solve some of the existing problem associated with current cryptographic systems, specifically the random generation and secure distribution of symmetric cryptographic keys. Initial commercial usage has already started now that the laboratory research phase has been completed.
  • Symmetric Encryption – Symmetric encryption is the oldest and best-known technique. A secret key, which can be a number, a word, or just a string of random letters, is applied to the text of a message to change the content in a particular way. This might be as simple as shifting each letter by a number of places in the alphabet. As long as both sender and recipient know the secret key, they can encrypt and decrypt all messages that use this key.
  • Asymmetric Encryption – The problem with secret keys is exchanging them over the Internet or a large network while preventing them from falling into the wrong hands. Anyone who knows the secret key can decrypt the message. One answer is asymmetric encryption, in which there are two related keys–a key pair. A public key is made freely available to anyone who might want to send you a message. A second, private key is kept secret, so that only you know it. Any message (text, binary files, or documents) that are encrypted by using the public key can only be decrypted by applying the same algorithm, but by using the matching private key. Any message that is encrypted by using the private key can only be decrypted by using the matching public key. This means that you do not have to worry about passing public keys over the Internet (the keys are supposed to be public). A problem with asymmetric encryption, however, is that it is slower than symmetric encryption. It requires far more processing power to both encrypt and decrypt the content of the message.

CISA Question 1320

Question

Which of the following cryptography is based on practical application of the characteristics of the smallest `grains` of light, the photon, the physical laws governing their generation and propagation and detection?

A. Quantum Cryptography
B. Elliptical Curve Cryptography (ECC)
C. Symmetric Key Cryptography
D. Asymmetric Key Cryptography

Answer

A. Quantum Cryptography

Explanation

Quantum cryptography is based on a practical application of the characteristics of the smallest -grain- of light, photons and on physical laws governing their generation, propagation and detection.

Quantum cryptography is the next generation of cryptography that may solve some of the existing problem associated with current cryptographic systems, specifically the random generation and secure distribution of symmetric cryptographic keys. Initial commercial usage has already started now that the laboratory research phase has been completed.

Quantum cryptography is based on a practical application of the characteristics of the smallest -grain- of light, photons and on physical laws governing their generation, propagation and detection.

Quantum cryptography is the next generation of cryptography that may solve some of the existing problem associated with current cryptographic systems, specifically the random generation and secure distribution of symmetric cryptographic keys. Initial commercial usage has already started now that the laboratory research phase has been completed.

The following were incorrect answers: Elliptic Key Cryptography(ECC) – A variant and more efficient form of a public key cryptography (how to manage more security out of minimum resources) gaining prominence is the ECC. ECC works well on a network computer requires strong cryptography but have some limitation such as bandwidth and processing power. This is even more important with devices such as smart cards, wireless phones and other mobile devices. It is believed that ECC demands less computational power and, therefore offers more security per bit. For example, an ECC with a 160-bit key offer the same security as an RSA based system with a 1024-bit key.

Symmetric Encryption- Symmetric encryption is the oldest and best-known technique. A secret key, which can be a number, a word, or just a string of random letters, is applied to the text of a message to change the content in a particular way. This might be as simple as shifting each letter by a number of places in the alphabet. As long as both sender and recipient know the secret key, they can encrypt and decrypt all messages that use this key.

The problem with secret keys is exchanging them over the Internet or a large network while preventing them from falling into the wrong hands.

Anyone who knows the secret key can decrypt the message.

Asymmetric encryption -In which there are two related keys–a key pair. A public key is made freely available to anyone who might want to send you a message. A second, private key is kept secret, so that only you know it.

Any message (text, binary files, or documents) that are encrypted by using the public key can only be decrypted by applying the same algorithm, but by using the matching private key. Any message that is encrypted by using the private key can only be decrypted by using the matching public key.

This means that you do not have to worry about passing public keys over the Internet (the keys are supposed to be public). A problem with asymmetric encryption, however, is that it is slower than symmetric encryption. It requires far more processing power to both encrypt and decrypt the content of the message.

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