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ISACA CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Exam Questions and Answers – 13

The latest ISACA CISA (Certified Information Systems Auditor) certification actual real practice exam question and answer (Q&A) dumps are available free, which are helpful for you to pass the ISACA CISA exam and earn ISACA CISA certification.

ISACA Certified Information Systems Auditor (CISA) Exam Questions and Answers

CISA Question 1321

Question

Which key is used by the sender of a message to create a digital signature for the message being sent?

A. Sender’s public key
B. Sender’s private key
C. Receiver’s public key
D. Receiver’s private key

Answer

B. Sender’s private key

Explanation

The sender private key is used to calculate the digital signature

The digital signature is used to achieve integrity, authenticity and non-repudiation. In a digital signature, the sender’s private key is used to encrypt the message digest (signing) of the message and receiver need to decrypt the same using sender’s public key to validate the signature.

A digital signature (not to be confused with a digital certificate) is an electronic signature that can be used to authenticate the identity of the sender of a message or the signer of a document, and possibly to ensure that the original content of the message or document that has been sent is unchanged. Digital signatures are easily transportable, cannot be imitated by someone else, and can be automatically time-stamped.

The ability to ensure that the original signed message arrived means that the sender cannot easily repudiate it later.

A digital signature can be used with any kind of message, whether it is encrypted or not, simply so that the receiver can be sure of the sender’s identity and that the message arrived intact. A digital certificate contains the digital signature of the certificate-issuing authority so that anyone can verify that the certificate is real.

How It Works:

Assume you were going to send the draft of a contract to your lawyer in another town. You want to give your lawyer the assurance that it was unchanged from what you sent and that it is really from you.

You copy-and-paste the contract (it’s a short one!) into an e-mail note.

Using special software, you obtain a message hash (mathematical summary) of the contract.

You then use a private key that you have previously obtained from a public-private key authority to encrypt the hash.

The encrypted hash becomes your digital signature of the message. (Note that it will be different each time you send a message.)

At the other end, your lawyer receives the message:

To make sure it’s intact and from you, your lawyer makes a hash of the received message.

Your lawyer then uses your public key to decrypt the message hash or summary.

If the hashes match, the received message is valid.

Below are some common reasons for applying a digital signature to communications:

Authentication – Although messages may often include information about the entity sending a message, that information may not be accurate. Digital signatures can be used to authenticate the source of messages. When ownership of a digital signature secret key is bound to a specific user, a valid signature shows that the message was sent by that user. The importance of high confidence in sender authenticity is especially obvious in a financial context. For example, suppose a bank’s branch office sends instructions to the central office requesting a change in the balance of an account. If the central office is not convinced that such a message is truly sent from an authorized source, acting on such a request could be a grave mistake.

Integrity – In many scenarios, the sender and receiver of a message may have a need for confidence that the message has not been altered during transmission. Although encryption hides the contents of a message, it may be possible to change an encrypted message without understanding it. (Some encryption algorithms, known as nonmalleable ones, prevent this, but others do not.) However, if a message is digitally signed, any change in the message after signature invalidates the signature.

Furthermore, there is no efficient way to modify a message and its signature to produce a new message with a valid signature, because this is still considered to be computationally infeasible by most cryptographic hash functions (see collision resistance).

Non-repudiation – Non-repudiation, or more specifically non-repudiation of origin, is an important aspect of digital signatures. By this property, an entity that has signed some information cannot at a later time deny having signed it. Similarly, access to the public key only does not enable a fraudulent party to fake a valid signature.

Note that these authentication, non-repudiation etc. properties rely on the secret key not having been revoked prior to its usage. Public revocation of a key-pair is a required ability, else leaked secret keys would continue to implicate the claimed owner of the key-pair. Checking revocation status requires an “online” check, e.g. checking a “Certificate Revocation List” or via the “Online Certificate Status Protocol”. Very roughly this is analogous to a vendor who receives credit-cards first checking online with the credit-card issuer to find if a given card has been reported lost or stolen. Of course, with stolen key pairs, the theft is often discovered only after the secret key’s use, e.g., to sign a bogus certificate for espionage purposes.

Tip for the exam:

Digital Signature does not provide confidentiality. The sender’s private key is used for calculating digital signature.

Encryption provides only confidentiality. The receiver’s public key or symmetric key is used for encryption.

The following were incorrect answers:

  • Sender’s Public key – This is incorrect as receiver will require sender’s private key to verify digital signature.
  • Receiver’s Public Key – The digital signature provides non-repudiation. The receiver’s public key is known to every one. So it can not be used for digital-signature.
  • Receiver’s public key can be used for encryption.
  • Receiver’s Private Key – The sender does not know the receiver’s private key. So this option is incorrect.

CISA Question 1322

Question

Which of the following is an advantage of asymmetric crypto system over symmetric key crypto system?

A. Performance and Speed
B. Key Management is built in
C. Adequate for Bulk encryption
D. Number of keys grows very quickly

Answer

B. Key Management is built in

Explanation

Key management is better in asymmetric key encryption as compare to symmetric key encryption. In fact, there is no key management built within Symmetric

Crypto systems. You must use the sneaker net or a trusted courier to exchange the key securely with the person you wish to communicate with.

Key management is the major issue and challenge in symmetric key encryption.

In symmetric key encryption, a symmetric key is shared between two users who wish to communicate together. As the number of users grows, the number of keys required also increases very rapidly.

For example, if a user wants to communicate with 5 different users then total number of different keys required by the user are 10. The formula for calculating total number of key required is n(n-1)/2Or total number of users times total of users minus one divided by 2.

Where n is number of users communicating with each others securely.

In an asymmetric key encryption, every user will have only two keys, also referred to as a Key Pair.

Private Key – Only known to the user who initially generated the key pair

Public key – Known to everyone, can be distributed at large

The following were incorrect answers:

Performance – Symmetric key encryption performance is better than asymmetric key encryption

Bulk encryption – As symmetric key encryption gives better performance, symmetric key should be used for bulk data encryption

Number of keys grows very quickly – The number of keys under asymmetric grows very nicely.1000 users would need a total of only 2000 keys, or a private and a public key for each user. Under symmetric encryption, one thousand users would need 495,000 keys to communicate securely with each others.

CISA Question 1323

Question

The goal of an information system is to achieve integrity, authenticity and non-repudiation of information’s sent across the network. Which of the following statement correctly describe the steps to address all three?

A. Encrypt the message digest using symmetric key and then send the encrypted digest to receiver along with original message.
B. Encrypt the message digest using receiver’s public key and then send the encrypted digest to receiver along with original message. The receiver can decrypt the message digest using his own private key.
C. Encrypt the message digest using sender’s public key and then send the encrypted digest to the receiver along with original message. The receiver can decrypt using his own private key.
D. Encrypt message digest using sender’s private key and then send the encrypted digest to the receiver along with original message. Receiver can decrypt the same using sender’s public key.

Answer

D. Encrypt message digest using sender’s private key and then send the encrypted digest to the receiver along with original message. Receiver can decrypt the same using sender’s public key.

Explanation

The digital signature is used to achieve integrity, authenticity and non-repudiation. In a digital signature, the sender’s private key is used to encrypt the message digest of the message. Encrypting the message digest is the act of Signing the message. The receiver will use the matching public key of the sender to decrypt the

Digital Signature using the sender’s public key.

A digital signature (not to be confused with a digital certificate) is an electronic signature that can be used to authenticate the identity of the sender of a message or the signer of a document, and possibly to ensure that the original content of the message or document that has been sent is unchanged. Digital signatures cannot be forged by someone else who does not possess the private key, it can also be automatically time-stamped. The ability to ensure that the original signed message arrived means that the sender cannot easily repudiate it later.

A digital signature can be used with any kind of message, whether it is encrypted or not, simply so that the receiver can be sure of the sender’s identity and that the message arrived intact. A digital certificate contains the digital signature of the certificate-issuing authority so that anyone can verify that the certificate is real and has not been modified since the day it was issued.

How Digital Signature Works:

Assume you were going to send the draft of a contract to your lawyer in another town. You want to give your lawyer the assurance that it was unchanged from what you sent and that it is really from you.

You copy-and-paste the contract (it’s a short one!) into an e-mail note.

Using special software, you obtain a message hash (mathematical summary) of the contract.

You then use a private key that you have previously obtained from a public-private key authority to encrypt the hash.

The encrypted hash becomes your digital signature of the message. (Note that it will be different each time you send a message.)

At the other end, your lawyer receives the message.

To make sure it’s intact and from you, your lawyer makes a hash of the received message.

Your lawyer then uses your public key to decrypt the message hash or summary.

If the hashes match, the received message is valid.

Below are some common reasons for applying a digital signature to communications:

Authentication – Although messages may often include information about the entity sending a message, that information may not be accurate. Digital signatures can be used to authenticate the source of messages. The importance of high assurance in the sender authenticity is especially obvious in a financial context. For example, suppose a bank’s branch office sends instructions to the central office requesting a change in the balance of an account. If the central office is not convinced that such a message is truly sent from an authorized source, acting on such a request could be a serious mistake.

Integrity – In many scenarios, the sender and receiver of a message may have a need for confidence that the message has not been altered during transmission. Although encryption hides the contents of a message, it may be possible to change an encrypted message without understanding it.(Some encryption algorithms, known as nonmalleable ones, prevent this, but others do not.) However, if a message is digitally signed, any change in the message after the signature has been applied would invalidates the signature. Furthermore, there is no efficient way to modify a message and its signature to produce a new message with a valid signature, because this is still considered to be computationally infeasible by most cryptographic hash functions (see collision resistance).

Non-repudiation – Non-repudiation, or more specifically non-repudiation of origin, is an important aspect of digital signatures. By this property, an entity that has signed some information cannot at a later time deny having signed it. Similarly, access to the public key only does not enable a fraudulent party to fake a valid signature.

Note that authentication, non-repudiation, and other properties rely on the secret key not having been revoked prior to its usage. Public revocation of a key-pair is a required ability, else leaked secret keys would continue to implicate the claimed owner of the key-pair. Checking revocation status requires an “online” check, e.g. checking a “Certificate Revocation List” or via the “Online Certificate Status Protocol”. This is analogous to a vendor who receives credit-cards first checking online with the credit-card issuer to find if a given card has been reported lost or stolen.

Tip for the exam:

Digital Signature does not provide confidentiality. It provides only authenticity and integrity. The sender’s private key is used to encrypt the message digest to calculate the digital signature

Encryption provides only confidentiality. The receiver’s public key or symmetric key is used for encryption

The following were incorrect answers:

Encrypt the message digest using symmetric key and then send the encrypted digest to receiver along with original message – Symmetric key encryption does not provide non-repudiation as symmetric key is shared between users

Encrypt the message digest using receiver’s public key and then send the encrypted digest to receiver along with original message. The receiver can decrypt the message digest using his own private key – Receiver’s public key is known to everyone. This will not address non-repudiation

Encrypt the message digest using sender’s public key and then send the encrypted digest to the receiver along with original message. The receiver can decrypt using his own private key -The sender public key is known to everyone. If sender’s key is used for encryption, then sender’s private key is required to decrypt data.

The receiver will not be able to decrypt the digest as receiver will not have sender’s private key.

CISA Question 1324

Question

Which of the following comparisons are used for identification and authentication in a biometric system?

A. One-to-many for identification and authentication
B. One-to-one for identification and authentication
C. One-to-many for identification and one-to-one for authentication
D. One-to-one for identification and one-to-many for authentication

Answer

C. One-to-many for identification and one-to-one for authentication

Explanation

In identification mode the system performs a one-to-many comparison against a biometric database in attempt to establish the identity of an unknown individual.

The system will succeed in identifying the individual if the comparison of the biometric sample to a template in the database falls within a previously set threshold.

Identification mode can be used either for ‘positive recognition’ (so that the user does not have to provide any information about the template to be used) or for ‘negative recognition’ of the person “where the system establishes whether the person is who she (implicitly or explicitly) denies to be”.

In verification (or authentication) mode the system performs a one-to-one comparison of a captured biometric with a specific template stored in a biometric database in order to verify the individual is the person they claim to be.

Management of Biometrics – Management of biometrics should address effective security for the collection, distribution and processing of biometrics data encompassing:

Data integrity, authenticity and non-repudiation

Management of biometric data across its life cycle – compromised of the enrollment, transmission and storage, verification, identification, and termination process

Usage of biometric technology, including one-to-one and one-to-many matching, for identification and authentication

Application of biometric technology for internal and external, as well as logical and physical access control

Encapsulation of biometric data – Security of the physical hardware used throughout the biometric data life cycle

Techniques for integrity and privacy protection of biometric data.

The following were incorrect answers:

  • All other choices presented were incorrectly describing identification and authentication mapping.

CISA Question 1325

Question

Which policy helps an auditor to gain a better understanding of biometrics system in an organization?

A. BIMS Policy
B. BOMS Policy
C. BMS Policy
D. BOS Policy

Answer

A. BIMS Policy

Explanation

The auditor should use a Biometric Information Management System (BIMS) Policy to gain better understanding of the biometric system in use.

Management of Biometrics – Management of biometrics should address effective security for the collection, distribution and processing of biometrics data encompassing: Data integrity, authenticity and non-repudiation

Management of biometric data across its life cycle – compromised of the enrollment, transmission and storage, verification, identification, and termination process

Usage of biometric technology, including one-to-one and one-to-many matching, for identification and authentication

Application of biometric technology for internal and external, as well as logical and physical access control

Encapsulation of biometric data – Security of the physical hardware used throughout the biometric data life cycle

Techniques for integrity and privacy protection of biometric data.

Management should develop and approve a Biometric Information Management and Security (BIMS) policy. The auditor should use the BIMS policy to gain better understanding of the biometric system in use. With respect to testing, the auditor should make sure this policy has been developed and biometric information system is being secured appropriately.

The identification and authentication procedures for individual enrollment and template creation should be specified in BIMS policy.

The following were incorrect answers:

  • All other choices presented were incorrect answers because they are not valid policies.

CISA Question 1326

Question

Which of the following statement correctly describes the difference between symmetric key encryption and asymmetric key encryption?

A. In symmetric key encryption the same key is used for encryption and decryption where as asymmetric key uses private key for encryption and decryption
B. In symmetric key encryption the public key is used for encryption and the symmetric key for decryption. Whereas in asymmetric key encryption the public key is used for encryption and private key is used for decryption
C. In symmetric key encryption the same key is used for encryption and decryption where as in asymmetric key encryption the public key is used for encryption and private key is used for decryption.
D. Both uses private key for encryption and the decryption process can be done using public key

Answer

C. In symmetric key encryption the same key is used for encryption and decryption where as in asymmetric key encryption the public key is used for encryption and private key is used for decryption.

Explanation

There are two basic techniques for encrypting information: symmetric encryption (also called secret key encryption) and asymmetric encryption (also called public key encryption.)

Symmetric Encryption – Symmetric encryption is the oldest and best-known technique. A secret key, which can be a number, a word, or just a string of random letters, is applied to the text of a message to change the content in a particular way. This might be as simple as shifting each letter by a number of places in the alphabet. As long as both sender and recipient know the secret key, they can encrypt and decrypt all messages that use this key.

Few examples of symmetric key algorithms are DES, AES, Blowfish, etc

Asymmetric Encryption – The problem with secret keys is exchanging them over the Internet or a large network while preventing them from falling into the wrong hands.

Anyone who knows the secret key can decrypt the message. One answer is the usage of asymmetric encryption, in which there are two related keys, usually called a key pair. The public key is made freely available to anyone who might want to send you a message. The second key, called the private key is kept secret, so that only you know it.

Any message (text, binary files, or documents) that are encrypted using the public key can only be decrypted by the matching private key. Any message that is encrypted by using the private key can only be decrypted by using the matching public key.

This means that you do not have to worry about passing public keys over the Internet (the keys are supposed to be public). A problem with asymmetric encryption, however, is that it is slower than symmetric encryption. It requires far more processing power to both encrypt and decrypt the content of the message.

Few examples of asymmetric key algorithms are RSA, Elliptic key Cryptography (ECC), El Gamal, Differ-Hellman, etc

The following were incorrect answers:

  • The other options don‘t describes correctly the difference between symmetric key and asymmetric key encryption.

CISA Question 1327

Question

An IS auditor needs to consider many factors while evaluating an encryption system. Which of the following is LEAST important factor to be considered while evaluating an encryption system?

A. Encryption algorithm
B. Encryption keys
C. Key length
D. Implementation language

Answer

D. Implementation language

Explanation

Implementation language is LEAST important as compare to other options. Encryption algorithm, encryption keys and key length are key elements of an Encryption system.

It is important to read carefully the question. The word “LEAST” was the key word. You had to find which one was LEAST important.

The following were incorrect answers:

  • Other options mentioned are key elements of an Encryption system
  • Encryption Algorithm – A mathematically based function or calculation that encrypts/decrypts data
  • Encryption keys – A piece of information that is used within an encryption algorithm (calculation) to make encryption or decryption process unique. Similar to passwords, a user needs to use the correct key to access or decipher the message into an unreadable form.
  • Key length – A predetermined length for the key. The longer the key, the more difficult it is to compromise in brute-force attack where all possible key combinations are tried.

CISA Question 1328

Question

Which of the following type of honey pot essentially gives a hacker a real environment to attack?

A. High-interaction
B. Low-interaction
C. Med-interaction
D. None of the choices

Answer

A. High-interaction

Explanation

High-interaction type of honey pot essentially gives an attacker a real environment to attack.

Also, you should know below information about honey pot for CISA exam:

A Honey pot is a software application that pretends to be an unfortunate server on the internet and is not set up actively protect against breakins.

There are two types of honey pot:

  • High-interaction Honey pots – Essentially gives hacker a real environment to attack. High-interaction honey pots imitate the activities of the production systems that host a variety of services and, therefore, an attacker may be allowed a lot of services to waste his time. According to recent research into high-interaction honey pot technology, by employing virtual machines, multiple honey pots can be hosted on a single physical machine. Therefore, even if the honey pot is compromised, it can be restored more quickly. In general, high-interaction honey pots provide more security by being difficult to detect, but they are highly expensive to maintain. If virtual machines are not available, one honey pot must be maintained for each physical computer, which can be exorbitantly expensive. Example: Honey net.
  • Low interaction – Emulate production environment and therefore, provide more limited information. Low-interaction honey pots simulate only the services frequently requested by attackers. Since they consume relatively few resources, multiple virtual machines can easily be hosted on one physical system, the virtual systems have a short response time, and less code is required, reducing the complexity of the virtual system’s security. Example: Honeyed.

The following were incorrect answers:

  • Med-interaction – Not a real type of honey pot

CISA Question 1329

Question

Which of the following is a software application that pretend to be a server on the Internet and is not set up purposely to actively protect against break-ins?

A. Bastion host
B. Honey pot
C. Dual Homed
D. Demilitarize Zone (DMZ)

Answer

B. Honey pot

Explanation

A Honey pot is a software application or system that pretends to be a normal server on the internet and it is not set up actively protect against all break-ins. In purpose, some of the updates, patches, or upgrades are missing.

You then monitor the honey pot to learn from the offensive side.

There are two types of honey pot:

  • High-interaction Honey pots – Essentially gives hacker a real environment to attack. High-interaction honey pots imitate the activities of the production systems that host a variety of services and, therefore, an attacker may be allowed a lot of services to waste his time. According to recent research into high-interaction honey pot technology, by employing virtual machines, multiple honey pots can be hosted on a single physical machine. Therefore, even if the honey pot is compromised, it can be restored more quickly. In general, high-interaction honey pots provide more security by being difficult to detect, but they are highly expensive to maintain. If virtual machines are not available, one honey pot must be maintained for each physical computer, which can be exorbitantly expensive. Example: Honey net.
  • Low interaction – Emulate production environment and therefore, provide more limited information. Low-interaction honey pots simulate only the services frequently requested by attackers. Since they consume relatively few resources, multiple virtual machines can easily be hosted on one physical system, the virtual systems have a short response time, and less code is required, reducing the complexity of the virtual system’s security. Example: Honeyed.

The following were incorrect answers:

  • Bastion host – On the Internet, a bastion host is the only host computer that a company allows to be addressed directly from the public network and that is designed to screen the rest of its network from security exposure. DMZ or Demilitarize Zone In computer networks, a DMZ (demilitarized zone) is a computer host or small network inserted as a “neutral zone” between a company’s private network and the outside public network. It prevents outside users from getting direct access to a server that has company data. Dual Homed – Dual-homed or dualhoming can refer to either an Ethernet device that has more than one network interface, for redundancy purposes, or in firewall technology, dualhomed is one of the firewall architectures for implementing preventive security.
  • Dual-Homed – An example of dual-homed devices are enthusiast computing motherboards that incorporate dual Ethernet network interface cards or a firewall with two network interface cards. One facing the external network and one facing the internal network.

CISA Question 1330

Question

There are many known weaknesses within an Intrusion Detection System (IDS). Which of the following is NOT a limitation of an IDS?

A. Weakness in the identification and authentication scheme.
B. Application level vulnerability.
C. Backdoor into application
D. Detect zero day attack.

Answer

D. Detect zero day attack.

Explanation

Detecting zero day attack is an advantage of IDS system making use of behavior or heuristic detection.

It is important to read carefully the question. The word “NOT” was the key word.

Intrusion Detection System are somewhat limited in scope, they do not address the following:

Weakness in the policy definition

Application-level vulnerability –

Backdoor within application –

Weakness in identification and authentication schemes

Also, you should know the information below for your CISA exam:

An IDS works in conjunction with routers and firewall by monitoring network usage anomalies.

Broad category of IDS includes:

1. Network Based IDS

2. Host Based IDS

Network Based IDS –

They identify attack within the monitored network and issue a warning to the operator.

If a network based IDS is placed between the Internet and the firewall, it will detect all the attack attempts whether or not they enter the firewall

Network Based IDS are blinded when dealing with encrypted traffic

Host Based IDS –

They are configured for a specific environment and will monitor various internal resources of the operating system to warn of a possible attack.

They can detect the modification of executable programs, detect the detection of files and issue a warning when an attempt is made to use a privilege account.

They can monitor traffic after it is decrypted and they supplement the Network Based IDS.

Types of IDS includes:

Statistical Based IDS – This system needs a comprehensive definition of the known and expected behavior of system

Neural Network – An IDS with this feature monitors the general patterns of activity and traffic on the network, and create a database. This is similar to statistical model but with added self-learning functionality.

Signature Based IDS – These IDS system protect against detected intrusion patterns. The intrusive pattern they can identify are stored in the form of signature.

The following were incorrect answers:

  • The other options mentioned are all limitations of an IDS.
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