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ISACA CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Exam Questions and Answers – 12

The latest ISACA CISA (Certified Information Systems Auditor) certification actual real practice exam question and answer (Q&A) dumps are available free, which are helpful for you to pass the ISACA CISA exam and earn ISACA CISA certification.

ISACA Certified Information Systems Auditor (CISA) Exam Questions and Answers

CISA Question 1271

Question

Which of the following attack is also known as Time of Check (TOC)/Time of Use (TOU)?

A. Eavesdropping
B. Traffic analysis
C. Masquerading
D. Race Condition

Answer

D. Race Condition

Explanation

A Race Condition attack is also known as Time of Check (TOC)/Time of Use (TOU).

A race condition is when processes carry out their tasks on a shared resource in an incorrect order. A race condition is possible when two or more processes use a shared resource, as in data within a variable. It is important that the processes carry out their functionality in the correct sequence. If process 2 carried out its task on the data before process 1, the result will be much different than if process1 carried out its tasks on the data before process 2.

In software, when the authentication and authorization steps are split into two functions, there is a possibility an attacker could use a race condition to force the authorization step to be completed before the authentication step. This would be a flaw in the software that the attacker has figured out how to exploit. A race condition occurs when two or more processes use the same resource and the sequences of steps within the software can be carried out in an improper order, something that can drastically affect the output. So, an attacker can force the authorization step to take place before the authentication step and gain unauthorized access to a resource.

The following answers are incorrect:

Eavesdropping – is the act of secretly listening to the private conversation of others without their consent, as defined by Black’s Law Dictionary.

This is commonly thought to be unethical and there is an old adage that “eavesdroppers seldom hear anything good of themselves…eavesdroppers always try to listen to matters that concern them.”

Traffic analysis – is the process of intercepting and examining messages in order to deduce information from patterns in communication. It can be performed even when the messages are encrypted and cannot be decrypted. In general, the greater the number of messages observed, or even intercepted and stored, the more can be inferred from the traffic. Traffic analysis can be performed in the context of military intelligence, counter-intelligence, or pattern-of-life analysis, and is a concern in computer security.

Masquerading – A masquerade attack is an attack that uses a fake identity, such as a network identity, to gain unauthorized access to personal computer information through legitimate access identification. If an authorization process is not fully protected, it can become extremely vulnerable to a masquerade attack.

Masquerade attacks can be perpetrated using stolen passwords and logons, by locating gaps in programs, or by finding a way around the authentication process.

The attack can be triggered either by someone within the organization or by an outsider if the organization is connected to a public network.

The amount of access masquerade attackers get depends on the level of authorization they’ve managed to attain. As such, masquerade attackers can have a full smorgasbord of cyber crime opportunities if they’ve gained the highest access authority to a business organization. Personal attacks, although less common, can also be harmful.

CISA Question 1272

Question

During an IS audit, auditor has observed that authentication and authorization steps are split into two functions and there is a possibility to force the authorization step to be completed before the authentication step. Which of the following technique an attacker could user to force authorization step before authentication?

A. Eavesdropping
B. Traffic analysis
C. Masquerading
D. Race Condition

Answer

D. Race Condition

Explanation

A race condition is when processes carry out their tasks on a shared resource in an incorrect order. A race condition is possible when two or more processes use a shared resource, as in data within a variable. It is important that the processes carry out their functionality in the correct sequence. If process 2 carried out its task on the data before process 1, the result will be much different than if process1 carried out its tasks on the data before process 2.

In software, when the authentication and authorization steps are split into two functions, there is a possibility an attacker could use a race condition to force the authorization step to be completed before the authentication step. This would be a flaw in the software that the attacker has figured out how to exploit. A race condition occurs when two or more processes use the same resource and the sequences of steps within the software can be carried out in an improper order, something that can drastically affect the output. So, an attacker can force the authorization step to take place before the authentication step and gain unauthorized access to a resource.

The following answers are incorrect:

Eavesdropping – is the act of secretly listening to the private conversation of others without their consent, as defined by Black’s Law Dictionary.

This is commonly thought to be unethical and there is an old adage that “eavesdroppers seldom hear anything good of themselves…eavesdroppers always try to listen to matters that concern them.”

Traffic analysis – is the process of intercepting and examining messages in order to deduce information from patterns in communication. It can be performed even when the messages are encrypted and cannot be decrypted. In general, the greater the number of messages observed, or even intercepted and stored, the more can be inferred from the traffic. Traffic analysis can be performed in the context of military intelligence, counter-intelligence, or pattern-of-life analysis, and is a concern in computer security.

Masquerading – A masquerade attack is an attack that uses a fake identity, such as a network identity, to gain unauthorized access to personal computer information through legitimate access identification. If an authorization process is not fully protected, it can become extremely vulnerable to a masquerade attack.

Masquerade attacks can be perpetrated using stolen passwords and logons, by locating gaps in programs, or by finding a way around the authentication process.

The attack can be triggered either by someone within the organization or by an outsider if the organization is connected to a public network.

The amount of access masquerade attackers get depends on the level of authorization they’ve managed to attain. As such, masquerade attackers can have a full smorgasbord of cyber crime opportunities if they’ve gained the highest access authority to a business organization. Personal attacks, although less common, can also be harmful.

CISA Question 1273

Question

Which of the following attack involves sending forged ICMP Echo Request packets to the broadcast address on multiple gateways in order to illicit responses from the computers behind the gateway where they all respond back with ICMP Echo Reply packets to the source IP address of the ICMP Echo Request packets?

A. Reflected attack
B. Brute force attack
C. Buffer overflow
D. Pulsing Zombie

Answer

A. Reflected attack

Explanation

Reflected attack involves sending forged requests to a large number of computers that will reply to the requests. The source IP address is spoofed to that of the targeted victim, causing replies to flood.

A distributed denial of service attack may involve sending forged requests of some type to a very large number of computers that will reply to the requests. Using Internet Protocol address spoofing, the source address is set to that of the targeted victim, which means all the replies will go to (and flood) the target. (This reflected attack form is sometimes called a “DRDOS”.

ICMP Echo Request attacks (Smurf Attack) can be considered one form of reflected attack, as the flooding host(s) send Echo Requests to the broadcast addresses of mix-configured networks, thereby enticing hosts to send Echo Reply packets to the victim. Some early DDoS programs implemented a distributed form of this attack.

In the surf attack, the attacker sends an ICMP ECHO REQUEST packet with a spoofed source address to a victim’s network broadcast address. This means that each system on the victim’s subnet receives an ICMP ECHO REQUEST packet. Each system then replies to that request with an ICMP ECHO REPLY packet to the spoof address provided in the packets’ which is the victim’s address. All of these response packets go to the victim system and overwhelm it because it is being bombarded with packets it does not necessarily know how to process. The victim system may freeze, crash, or reboot. The Smurf attack is illustrated in figure below:

Smurf attack

The following answers are incorrect:

  • Brute force attack – Brute force (also known as brute force cracking) is a trial and error method used by application programs to decode encrypted data such as passwords or Data Encryption Standard (DES) keys, through exhaustive effort (using brute force) rather than employing intellectual strategies. Just as a criminal might break into, or “crack” a safe by trying many possible combinations, a brute force cracking application proceeds through all possible combinations of legal characters in sequence. Brute force is considered to be an infallible, although time-consuming, approach.
  • Buffer overflow – A buffer overflow occurs when a program or process tries to store more data in a buffer (temporary data storage area) than it was intended to hold. Since buffers are created to contain a finite amount of data, the extra information – which has to go somewhere – can overflow into adjacent buffers, corrupting or overwriting the valid data held in them. Although it may occur accidentally through programming error, buffer overflow is an increasingly common type of security attack on data integrity.
  • Pulsing Zombie – A Dos attack in which a network is subjected to hostile pinging by different attacker computer over an extended time period.

CISA Question 1274

Question

Which of the following attack is against computer network and involves fragmented or invalid ICMP packets sent to the target?

A. Nuke attack
B. Brute force attack
C. Buffer overflow
D. Pulsing Zombie

Answer

A. Nuke attack

Explanation

A Nuke attack is an old denial-of-service attack against computer networks consisting of fragmented or otherwise invalid ICMP packets sent to the target, achieved by using a modified ping utility to repeatedly send this corrupt data, thus slowing down the affected computer until it comes to a complete stop.

A specific example of a nuke attack that gained some prominence is the Win Nuke, which exploited the vulnerability in the NetBIOS handler in Windows 95. A string of out-of-band data was sent to TCP port 139 of the victim’s machine, causing it to lock up and display a Blue Screen of Death (BSOD).

The following answers are incorrect:

  • Brute force attack – Brute force (also known as brute force cracking) is a trial and error method used by application programs to decode encrypted data such as passwords or Data Encryption Standard (DES) keys, through exhaustive effort (using brute force) rather than employing intellectual strategies. Just as a criminal might break into, or “crack” a safe by trying many possible combinations, a brute force cracking application proceeds through all possible combinations of legal characters in sequence. Brute force is considered to be an infallible, although time-consuming, approach.
  • Buffer overflow – A buffer overflow occurs when a program or process tries to store more data in a buffer (temporary data storage area) than it was intended to hold. Since buffers are created to contain a finite amount of data, the extra information – which has to go somewhere – can overflow into adjacent buffers, corrupting or overwriting the valid data held in them. Although it may occur accidentally through programming error, buffer overflow is an increasingly common type of security attack on data integrity.
  • Pulsing Zombie – A Dos attack in which a network is subjected to hostile pinging by different attacker computer over an extended time period.

CISA Question 1275

Question

Which of the following attack redirects outgoing message from the client back onto the client, preventing outside access as well as flooding the client with the sent packets?

A. Banana attack
B. Brute force attack
C. Buffer overflow
D. Pulsing Zombie

Answer

A. Banana attack

Explanation

A “banana attack” is another particular type of DoS. It involves redirecting outgoing messages from the client back onto the client, preventing outside access, as well as flooding the client with the sent packets.

The Banana attack uses a router to change the destination address of a frame. In the Banana attack:

  • A compromised router copies the source address on an inbound frame into the destination address.
  • The outbound frame bounces back to the sender.
  • This sender is flooded with frames and consumes so many resources that valid service requests can no longer be processed.

The following answers are incorrect:

  • Brute force attack – Brute force (also known as brute force cracking) is a trial and error method used by application programs to decode encrypted data such as passwords or Data Encryption Standard (DES) keys, through exhaustive effort (using brute force) rather than employing intellectual strategies. Just as a criminal might break into, or “crack” a safe by trying many possible combinations, a brute force cracking application proceeds through all possible combinations of legal characters in sequence. Brute force is considered to be an infallible, although time-consuming, approach.
  • Buffer overflow – A buffer overflow occurs when a program or process tries to store more data in a buffer (temporary data storage area) than it was intended to hold. Since buffers are created to contain a finite amount of data, the extra information – which has to go somewhere – can overflow into adjacent buffers, corrupting or overwriting the valid data held in them. Although it may occur accidentally through programming error, buffer overflow is an increasingly common type of security attack on data integrity.
  • Pulsing Zombie – A Dos attack in which a network is subjected to hostile pinging by different attacker computer over an extended time period.

CISA Question 1276

Question

COBIT 5 separates information goals into three sub-dimensions of quality. Which of the following sub-dimension of COBIT 5 describes the extent to which data values are in conformance with the actual true value?

A. Intrinsic quality
B. Contextual and representational quality
C. Security quality
D. Accessibility quality

Answer

A. Intrinsic quality

Explanation

Three sub-dimensions of quality in COBIT 5 are as follows:

1. Intrinsic quality – The extent to which data values are in conformance with the actual or true values. It includes

  • Accuracy – The extent to which information is correct or accurate and reliable
  • Objectivity – The extent to which information is unbiased, unprejudiced and impartial.
  • Believability – The extent to which information is regarded as true and credible.
  • Reputation – The extent to which information is highly regarded in terms of its source or content.

2. Contextual and Representational Quality – The extent to which information is applicable to the task of the information user and is presented in an intelligible and clear manner, reorganizing that information quality depends on the context of use. It includes

  • Relevancy – The extent to which information is applicable and helpful for the task at hand.
  • Completeness – The extent to which information is not missing and is of sufficient depth and breadth for the task at hand
  • Currency – The extent to which information is sufficiently up to date for task at hand.
  • Appropriate amount of information – The extent to which the volume of information is appropriate for the task at hand
  • Consistent Representation – The extent to which information is presented in the same format.
  • Interpretability – The extent to which information is in appropriate languages, symbols and units, with clear definitions.
  • Understandability – The extent to which information is easily comprehended.
  • Ease of manipulation – The extent to which information is easy to manipulate and apply to different tasks.

3. Security/accessibility quality – The extent to which information is available or obtainable. It includes:

  • Availability/timeliness – The extent to which information is available when required, or easily available when required, or easily and quickly retrievable.
  • Restricted Access – The extent to which access to information is restricted appropriately to authorize parties.

The following were incorrect answers:

  • Contextual and representational quality – The extent to which information is applicable to the task of the information user and is presented in an intelligible and clear manner, reorganizing that information quality depends on the context of use.
  • Security Quality or Accessibility quality -The extent to which information is available or obtainable.

CISA Question 1277

Question

Which of the following type of lock uses a magnetic or embedded chip based plastic card key or token entered into a sensor/reader to gain access?

A. Bolting door locks
B. Combination door lock
C. Electronic door lock
D. Biometric door lock

Answer

C. Electronic door lock

Explanation

Electronic door lock uses a magnetic or embedded chip based plastic card key or token entered into a sensor reader to gain access. A special code internally stored in the card or token is read by sensor device that then activates the door locking mechanism.

For CISA exam you should know below types of lock:

Bolting door lock – These locks required the traditional metal key to gain entry. The key should be stamped “do not duplicate” and should be stored and issued under strict management control.

Biometric door lock – An individual’s unique body features such as voice, retina, fingerprint, hand geometry or signature, activate these locks. This system is used in instances when extremely sensitive facilities must be protected such as in the military.

Electronic door lock – This system uses a magnetic or embedded chip based plastic card key or token entered into a sensor reader to gain access. A special code internally stored in the card or token is read by sensor device that then activates the door locking mechanism.

The Combination door lock or cipher lock uses a numeric key pad or dial to gain entry, and is often seen at airport gate entry doors and smaller server rooms. The combination should be changed at regular interval or whenever an employee with access is transferred, fired or subject to disciplinary action. This reduces risk of the combination being known by unauthorized people.

The following were incorrect answers:

Bolting door lock – These locks required the traditional metal key to gain entry. The key should be stamped “do not duplicate” and should be stored and issued under strict management control.

Biometric door lock – An individual’s unique body features such as voice, retina, fingerprint, hand geometry or signature, activate these locks. This system is used in instances when extremely sensitive facilities must be protected such as in the military.

The Combination door lock or cipher lock uses a numeric key pad or dial to gain entry, and is often seen at airport gate entry doors and smaller server rooms. The combination should be changed at regular interval or whenever an employee with access is transferred, fired or subject to disciplinary action. This reduces risk of the combination being known by unauthorized people.

CISA Question 1278

Question

Which of the following type of lock uses a numeric keypad or dial to gain entry?

A. Bolting door locks
B. Cipher lock
C. Electronic door lock
D. Biometric door lock

Answer

B. Cipher lock

Explanation

The combination door lock or cipher lock uses a numeric key pad, push button, or dial to gain entry, it is often seen at airport gate entry doors and smaller server rooms. The combination should be changed at regular interval or whenever an employee with access is transferred, fired or subject to disciplinary action. This reduces risk of the combination being known by unauthorized people.

A cipher lock, is controlled by a mechanical key pad, typically 5 to 10 digits that when pushed in the right combination the lock will releases and allows entry. The drawback is someone looking over a shoulder can see the combination. However, an electric version of the cipher lock is in production in which a display screen will automatically move the numbers around, so if someone is trying to watch the movement on the screen they will not be able to identify the number indicated unless they are standing directly behind the victim.

Remember locking devices are only as good as the wall or door that they are mounted in and if the frame of the door or the door itself can be easily destroyed then the lock will not be effective. A lock will eventually be defeated and its primary purpose is to delay the attacker.

For your exam you should know below types of lock:

  • Bolting door lock – These locks required the traditional metal key to gain entry. The key should be stamped “do not duplicate” and should be stored and issued under strict management control.
  • Biometric door lock – An individual’s unique physical attribute such as voice, retina, fingerprint, hand geometry or signature, activate these locks. This system is used in instances when sensitive facilities must be protected such as in the military.
  • Electronic door lock – This system uses a magnetic or embedded chip based plastic card key or token entered into a sensor reader to gain access. A special code internally stored in the card or token is read by sensor device that then activates the door locking mechanism.

The following were incorrect answers:

  • Bolting door lock – These locks required the traditional metal key to gain entry. The key should be stamped “do not duplicate” and should be stored and issued under strict management control.
  • Biometric door lock – An individual’s unique body features such as voice, retina, fingerprint, hand geometry or signature, activate these locks. This system is used in instances when extremely sensitive facilities must be protected such as in the military.
  • Electronic door lock – This system uses a magnetic or embedded chip based plastic card key or token entered into a sensor reader to gain access. A special code internally stored in the card or token is read by sensor device that then activates the door locking mechanism.

CISA Question 1279

Question

Which of the following statement correctly describes the difference between total flooding and local application extinguishing agent?

A. The local application design contain physical barrier enclosing the fire space where as physical barrier is not present in total flooding extinguisher
B. The total flooding design contain physical barrier enclosing the fire space where as physical barrier is not present in local application design extinguisher
C. The physical barrier enclosing fire space is not present in total flooding and local application extinguisher agent
D. The physical barrier enclosing fire space is present in total flooding and local application extinguisher agent

Answer

B. The total flooding design contain physical barrier enclosing the fire space where as physical barrier is not present in local application design extinguisher

Explanation

For CISA exam you should know below information about Fire Suppression Systems

Fire Suppression System – This system is designed to automatically activate immediately after detection of heat, typically generated by fire. Like smoke detectors, the system will produce an audible alarm when activated and be linked to a central guard station that is regularly monitored. The system should also be inspected and tested annually.

Testing interval should comply with industry and insurance standard and guideline.

Broadly speaking there are two methods for applying an extinguisher agent: total flooding and local application.

Total Flooding – System working under total flooding application apply an extinguishing agent to a three dimensional enclosed space in order to achieve a concentration of the agent (volume percentage of agent in air) adequate to extinguish the fire. These type of system may be operated automatically by detection and related controls or manually by the operation of a system actuator.

Local Application – System working under a local application principle apply an extinguishing agent directly onto a fire (usually a two dimensional area) or into a three dimensional region immediately surrounding the substance or object on a fire. The main difference between local application and total flooding design is the absence of physical barrier enclosing the fire space in the local application design.

The medium of fire suppression varies but usually one of the following:

Water based systems are typically referred to as sprinkler system. These systems are effective but are also unpopular because they damage equipment and property. The system can be dry-pipe or charged (water is always in system piping). A charged system is more reliable but has the disadvantage of exposing the facility to expensive water damage if the pipe leak or break.

Dry-pipe sprinkling system do not have water in the pipe until an electronic fire alarm activates the water to send water into system. This is opposed to fully charged water pipe system. Dry-pipe system has the advantage that any failure in the pipe will not result in water leaking into sensitive equipment from above.

Since water and electricity do not mix these systems must be combined with an automatic switch to shut down the electric supply to the area protected.

Holon system releases pressurize halos gases that removes oxygen from air, thus starving the fire. Holon was popular because it is an inert gas and does not damage and does not damage equipment like water does. Because halos adversely affect the ozone layer, it was banned in Montreal (Canada) protocol 1987, which stopped Holon production as of 1 January 1994. As a banned gas, all Holon installation are now required by international agreement to be removed. The Holon substitute is FM-200, which is the most effective alternative.

FM-220TM: Also called heptafluoropropane, HFC-227 or HFC-227ea(ISO Name)is a colorless odorless gaseous fire suppression agent. It is commonly used as a gaseous fire suppression agent.

Aragonite is the brand name for a mixture of 50% argon and 50% nitrogen. It is an inert gas used in gaseous fire suppression systems for extinguishing fires where damage to equipment is to be avoided. Although argon is a nontoxic, it does not satisfy the body’s need for oxygen and is simple asphyxiate.

CO2 system releases pressurized carbon dioxide gas into the area protected to replace the oxygen required for combustion. Unlike halos and its later replacement, however, CO2 is unable to sustain human life. Therefore, in most of countries it is illegal to for such a system to be set to automatic release if any human may be in the area. Because of this, these systems are usually discharged manually, introducing an additional delay in combating fire.

The following were incorrect answers:

  • The other presented options do not describe valid difference between total flooding and local application extinguishing agent.

CISA Question 1280

Question

Which of the following statement is NOT true about smoke detector?

A. The Smoke detectors should be above and below the ceiling tiles throughout the facilities and below the raised in the computer room floor
B. The smoke detector should produce an audible alarm when activated and be linked to a monitored station
C. The location of the smoke detector should be marked on the tiling for easy identification and access
D. Smoke detector should replace fire suppression system

Answer

D. Smoke detector should replace fire suppression system

Explanation

The word NOT is the keyword used in the question. You need to find out a statement which is not applicable to smoke detector. Smoke detector should supplement, not replace, fire suppression system.

For CISA exam you should know below information about smoke detector.

The Smoke detectors should be above and below the ceiling tiles throughout the facilities and below the raised computer room floor.

The smoke detector should produce an audible alarm when activated be linked to a monitored station.

The location of the smoke detector should be marked on the tiling for easy identification and access.

Smoke detector should supplement, not replace, fire suppression system.

The following were incorrect answers:

  • The other presented options are valid statement about smoke detector.
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