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ISACA CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Exam Questions and Answers – 12

The latest ISACA CISA (Certified Information Systems Auditor) certification actual real practice exam question and answer (Q&A) dumps are available free, which are helpful for you to pass the ISACA CISA exam and earn ISACA CISA certification.

ISACA Certified Information Systems Auditor (CISA) Exam Questions and Answers

CISA Question 1261

Question

Which of the following method is recommended by security professional to PERMANENTLY erase sensitive data on magnetic media?

A. Degaussing
B. Overwrite every sector of magnetic media with pattern of 1’s and 0’s
C. Format magnetic media
D. Delete File allocation table

Answer

A. Degaussing

Explanation

PERMANENTLY is the keyword used in the question. You need to find out data removal method which remove data permanently from magnetic media.

Degaussing is the most effective method out of all provided choices to erase sensitive data on magnetic media provided magnetic media is not requiring to be reuse. Some degausses can destroy drives. The security professional should exercise caution when recommending or using degausses on media for reuse.

A device that performs degaussing generates a coercive magnetic force that reduces the magnetic flux density of the storage media to zero.

This magnetic force is what properly erases data from media. Data are stored on magnetic media by the representation of the polarization of the atoms. Degaussing changes this polarization (magnetic alignment) by using a type of large magnet to bring it back to its original flux (magnetic alignment).

For your exam you should know the information below:

When media is to be reassigned (a form of object reuse), it is important that all residual data is carefully removed.

Simply deleting files or formatting the media does not actually remove the information. File deletion and media formatting often simply remove the pointers to the information. Providing assurance for object reuse requires specialized tools and techniques according to the type of media on which the data resides.

Specialized hardware devices known as degausses can be used to erase data saved to magnetic media. The measure of the amount of energy needed to reduce the magnetic field on the media to zero is known as coercivity. It is important to make sure that the coercivity of the degasser is of sufficient strength to meet object reuse requirements when erasing data. If a degasser is used with insufficient coercivity, then a remanence of the data will exist.

Remanence is the measure of the existing magnetic field on the media; it is the residue that remains after an object is degaussed or written over. Data is still recoverable even when the remanence is small. While data remanence exists, there is no assurance of safe object reuse. Some degausses can destroy drives.

The security professional should exercise caution when recommending or using degausses on media for reuse.

Software tools also exist that can provide object reuse assurance. These tools overwrite every sector of magnetic media with a random or predetermined bit pattern. Overwrite methods are effective for all forms of electronic media with the exception of read-only optical media.

There is a drawback to using overwrite software. During normal write operations with magnetic media, the head of the drive moves back-and-forth across the media as data is written. The track of the head does not usually follow the exact path each time. The result is a miniscule amount of data remanence with each pass. With specialized equipment, it is possible to read data that has been overwritten.

To provide higher assurance in this case, it is necessary to overwrite each sector multiple times. Security practitioners should keep in mind that a one-time pass may be acceptable for noncritical information, but sensitive data should be overwritten with multiple passes. Overwrite software can also be used to clear the sectors within solid-state media such as USB thumb drives. It is suggested that physical destruction methods such as incineration or secure recycling should be considered for solid-state media that is no longer used.

The last form of preventing unauthorized access to sensitive data is media destruction. Shredding, burning, grinding, and pulverizing are common methods of physically destroying media. Degaussing can also be a form of media destruction. High-power degausses are so strong in some cases that they can literally bend and warp the platters in a hard drive.

Shredding and burning are effective destruction methods for non-rigid magnetic media. Indeed, some shredders are capable of shredding some rigid media such as an optical disk. This may be an effective alternative for any optical media containing non-sensitive information due to the residue size remaining after feeding the disk into the machine.

However, the residue size might be too large for media containing sensitive information. Alternatively, grinding and pulverizing are acceptable choices for rigid and solid-state media. Specialized devices are available for grinding the face of optical media that either sufficiently scratches the surface to render the media unreadable or actually grinds off the data layer of the disk. Several services also exist which will collect drives, destroy them on site if requested and provide certification of completion. It will be the responsibility of the security professional to help, select, and maintain the most appropriate solutions for media cleansing and disposal.

The following answers are incorrect:

  • Overwrite every sector of magnetic media with pattern of 1’s and 0’s – Less effective than degaussing provided magnetic media is not requiring to be reuse.
  • Format magnetic media – Formatting magnetic media does not erase all data. Data can be recoverable after formatting using software tools.
  • Delete File allocation table-It will not erase all data. Data can be recoverable using software tools.

CISA Question 1262

Question

Which of the following protocol is PRIMARILY used to provide confidentiality in a web-based application thus protecting data sent across a client machine and a server

A. SSL
B. FTP
C. SSH
D. S/MIME

Answer

A. SSL

Explanation

The Secure Socket Layer (SSL) Protocol is primarily used to provide confidentiality to the information sent across clients and servers.

For your exam you should know the information below:

The Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a commonly-used protocol for managing the security of a message transmitted over a public network such as the Internet.

SSL has recently been succeeded by Transport Layer Security (TLS), which is based on SSL.SSL uses a program layer located between the Internet’s Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and Transport Control Protocol (TCP) layers.

SSL is included as part of both the Microsoft and Netscape browsers and most Web server products.

Developed by Netscape, SSL also gained the support of Microsoft and other Internet client/server developers as well and became the de facto standard until evolving into Transport Layer Security. The “sockets” part of the term refers to the sockets method of passing data back and forth between a client and a server program in a network or between program layers in the same computer. SSL uses the public-and-private key encryption system from RSA, which also includes the use of a digital certificate. Later on SSL uses a Session Key along a Symmetric Cipher for the bulk of the data.

TLS and SSL are an integral part of most Web browsers (clients) and Web servers. If a Web site is on a server that supports SSL, SSL can be enabled and specific Web pages can be identified as requiring SSL access. Any Web server can be enabled by using Netscape’s SSLRef program library which can be downloaded for noncommercial use or licensed for commercial use.

TLS and SSL are not interoperable. However, a message sent with TLS can be handled by a client that handles SSL but not TLS.

The SSL handshake –

A HTTP-based SSL connection is always initiated by the client using a URL starting with https:// instead of with http://. At the beginning of an SSL session, an SSL handshake is performed. This handshake produces the cryptographic parameters of the session. A simplified overview of how the SSL handshake is processed is shown in the diagram below.

SSL Handshake

The client sends a client “hello” message that lists the cryptographic capabilities of the client (sorted in client preference order), such as the version of SSL, the cipher suites supported by the client, and the data compression methods supported by the client. The message also contains a 28-byte random number.

The server responds with a server “hello” message that contains the cryptographic method (cipher suite) and the data compression method selected by the server, the session ID, and another random number.

Note:

The client and the server must support at least one common cipher suite, or else the handshake fails. The server generally chooses the strongest common cipher suite.

The server sends its digital certificate. (In this example, the server uses X.509 V3 digital certificates with SSL.)

If the server uses SSL V3, and if the server application (for example, the Web server) requires a digital certificate for client authentication, the server sends a “digital certificate request” message. In the “digital certificate request” message, the server sends a list of the types of digital certificates supported and the distinguished names of acceptable certificate authorities.

The server sends a server “hello done” message and waits for a client response. Upon receipt of the server “hello done” message, the client (the Web browser) verifies the validity of the server’s digital certificate and checks that the server’s “hello” parameters are acceptable.

If the server requested a client digital certificate, the client sends a digital certificate, or if no suitable digital certificate is available, the client sends a “no digital certificate” alert. This alert is only a warning, but the server application can fail the session if client authentication is mandatory.

The client sends a “client key exchange” message. This message contains the pre-master secret, a 46-byte random number used in the generation of the symmetric encryption keys and the message authentication code (MAC) keys, encrypted with the public key of the server.

If the client sent a digital certificate to the server, the client sends a “digital certificate verify” message signed with the client’s private key. By verifying the signature of this message, the server can explicitly verify the ownership of the client digital certificate.

Note:

An additional process to verify the server digital certificate is not necessary. If the server does not have the private key that belongs to the digital certificate, it cannot decrypt the pre-master secret and create the correct keys for the symmetric encryption algorithm, and the handshake fails.

The client uses a series of cryptographic operations to convert the pre-master secret into a master secret, from which all key material required for encryption and message authentication is derived. Then the client sends a “change cipher spec” message to make the server switch to the newly negotiated cipher suite. The next message sent by the client (the “finished” message) is the first message encrypted with this cipher method and keys.

The server responds with a “change cipher spec” and a “finished” message of its own.

The SSL handshake ends, and encrypted application data can be sent.

The following answers are incorrect:

FTP – File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard Internet protocol for transmitting files between computers on the Internet. Like the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), which transfers displayable Web pages and related files, and the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), which transfers e-mail, FTP is an application protocol that uses the Internet’s TCP/IP protocols. FTP is commonly used to transfer Web page files from their creator to the computer that acts as their server for everyone on the Internet. It’s also commonly used to download programs and other files to your computer from other servers.

SSH – Secure Shell (SSH) is a cryptographic network protocol for secure data communication, remote command-line login, remote command execution, and other secure network services between two networked computers. It connects, via a secure channel over an insecure network, a server and a client running SSH server and SSH client programs, respectively.

S/MIME – S/MIME (Secure Multi-Purpose Internet Mail Extensions) is a secure method of sending e-mail that uses the Rivets-Shamir-Adelman encryption system.

S/MIME is included in the latest versions of the Web browsers from Microsoft and Netscape and has also been endorsed by other vendors that make messaging products. RSA has proposed S/MIME as a standard to the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).

CISA Question 1263

Question

During an IS audit, one of your auditor has observed that some of the critical servers in your organization can be accessed ONLY by using shared/common user name and password. What should be the auditor’s PRIMARY concern be with this approach?

A. Password sharing
B. Accountability
C. Shared account management
D. Difficulty in auditing shared account

Answer

B. Accountability

Explanation

The keyword PRIMARY is used in the question. Accountability should be the primary concern if critical servers can be accessed only by using shared user id and password. It would be very difficult to track the changes done by employee on critical server.

For your exam you should know the information below:

Accountability – Ultimately one of the drivers behind strong identification, authentication, auditing and session management is accountability. Accountability is fundamentally about being able to determine who or what is responsible for an action and can be held responsible. A closely related information assurance topic is non-repudiation.

Repudiation is the ability to deny an action, event, impact or result. Non-repudiation is the process of ensuring a user may not deny an action.

Accountability relies heavily on non-repudiation to ensure users, processes and actions may be held responsible for impacts.

The following contribute to ensuring accountability of actions:

  • Strong identification
  • Strong authentication
  • User training and awareness
  • Comprehensive, timely and thorough monitoring
  • Accurate and consistent audit logs
  • Independent audits
  • Policies enforcing accountability
  • Organizational behavior supporting accountability

The following answers are incorrect:

  • The other options are also valid concern. But the primary concern should be accountability

CISA Question 1264

Question

Which of the following method should be recommended by security professional to erase the data on the magnetic media that would be reused by another employee?

A. Degaussing
B. Overwrite every sector of magnetic media with pattern of 1’s and 0’s
C. Format magnetic media
D. Delete File allocation table

Answer

B. Overwrite every sector of magnetic media with pattern of 1’s and 0’s

Explanation

Software tools can provide object reuse assurance. These tools overwrite every sector of magnetic media with a random or predetermined bit pattern. Overwrite methods are effective for all forms of electronic media with the exception of read-only optical media.

For your exam you should know the information below:

When media is to be reassigned (a form of object reuse), it is important that all residual data is carefully removed. Simply deleting files or formatting media does not actually remove the information. File deletion and media formatting often simply remove the pointers to the information. Providing assurance for object reuse requires specialized tools and techniques according to the type of media on which the data resides. Specialized hardware devices known as degausses can be used to erase data saved to magnetic media. The measure of the amount of energy needed to reduce the magnetic field on the media to zero is known as coercivity. It is important to make sure that the coercivity of the degasser is of sufficient strength to meet object reuse requirements when erasing data. If a degasser is used with insufficient coercivity, then a remanence of the data will exist. Remanence is the measure of the existing magnetic field on the media; it is the residue that remains after an object is degaussed or written over. Data is still recoverable even when the remanence is small. While data remanence exists, there is no assurance of safe object reuse. Some degausses can destroy drives. The security professional should exercise caution when recommending or using degausses on media for reuse.

Software tools also exist that can provide object reuse assurance. These tools overwrite every sector of magnetic media with a random or predetermined bit pattern. Overwrite methods are effective for all forms of electronic media with the exception of read-only optical media.

There exists a drawback to using overwrite software. During normal write operations with magnetic media, the head of the drive moves backand-forth across the media as data is written. The track of the head does not usually follow the exact path each time. The result is a miniscule amount of data remanence with each pass. With specialized equipment, it is possible to read data that has been overwritten. To provide higher assurance in this case, it is necessary to overwrite each sector multiple times. Security practitioners should keep in mind that a one-time pass may be acceptable for noncritical information, but sensitive data should be overwritten with multiple passes.

Overwrite software can also be used to clear the sectors within solid-state media such as USB thumb drives. It is suggested that physical destruction methods such as incineration or secure recycling should be considered for solid-state media that is no longer used.

The last form of preventing unauthorized access to sensitive data is media destruction. Shredding, burning, grinding, and pulverizing are common methods of physically destroying media. Degaussing can also be a form of media destruction. High-power degausses are so strong in some cases that they can literally bend and warp the platters in a hard drive. Shredding and burning are effective destruction methods for nonrigid magnetic media. Indeed, some shredders are capable of shredding some rigid media such as an optical disk. This may be an effective alternative for any optical media containing non-sensitive information due to the residue size remaining after feeding the disk into the machine.

However, the residue size might be too large for media containing sensitive information.

Alternatively, grinding and pulverizing are acceptable choices for rigid and solid-state media. Specialized devices are available for grinding the face of optical media that either sufficiently scratches the surface to render the media unreadable or actually grinds off the data layer of the disk. Several services also exist which will collect drives, destroy them on site if requested and provide certification of completion. It will be the responsibility of the security professional to help, select, and maintain the most appropriate solutions for media cleansing and disposal.

The following answers are incorrect:

  • Degaussing – Erasing data by applying magnetic field around magnetic media. Degausses device is used to erase the data. Sometime degausses can make magnetic media unusable. So degaussing is not recommended way if magnetic media needs to be reused.
  • Format magnetic media – Formatting magnetic media does not erase all data. Data can be recoverable after formatting using software tools.
  • Delete File allocation table – It will not erase all data. Data can be recoverable using software tools.

CISA Question 1265

Question

Which of the following Confidentiality, Integrity, Availability (CIA) attribute supports the principle of least privilege by providing access to information only to authorized and intended users?

A. Confidentiality
B. Integrity
C. Availability
D. Accuracy

Answer

A. Confidentiality

Explanation

Confidentiality supports the principle of “least privilege” by providing that only authorized individuals, processes, or systems should have access to information on a need-to-know basis.

The level of access that an authorized individual should have is at the level necessary for them to do their job. In recent years, much press has been dedicated to the privacy of information and the need to protect it from individuals, who may be able to commit crimes by viewing the information.

Identity theft is the act of assuming one’s identity through knowledge of confidential information obtained from various sources.

An important measure to ensure confidentiality of information is data classification. This helps to determine who should have access to the information (public, internal use only, or confidential). Identification, authentication, and authorization through access controls are practices that support maintaining the confidentiality of information.

A sample control for protecting confidentiality is to encrypt information. Encryption of information limits the usability of the information in the event it is accessible to an unauthorized person.

For your exam you should know the information below:

Integrity – Integrity is the principle that information should be protected from intentional, unauthorized, or accidental changes.

Information stored in files, databases, systems, and networks must be relied upon to accurately process transactions and provide accurate information for business decision making. Controls are put in place to ensure that information is modified through accepted practices.

Sample controls include management controls such as segregation of duties, approval checkpoints in the systems development life cycle, and implementation of testing practices that assist in providing information integrity. Well-formed transactions and security of the update programs provide consistent methods of applying changes to systems. Limiting update access to those individuals with a need to access limits the exposure to intentional and unintentional modification.

Availability – Availability is the principle that ensures that information is available and accessible to users when needed.

The two primary areas affecting the availability of systems are:

1. Denial-of-Service attacks and

2. Loss of service due to a disaster, which could be man-made (e.g., poor capacity planning resulting in system crash, outdated hardware, and poor testing resulting in system crash after upgrade) or natural (e.g., earthquake, tornado, blackout, hurricane, fire, and flood).

In either case, the end user does not have access to information needed to conduct business. The criticality of the system to the user and its importance to the survival of the organization will determine how significant the impact of the extended downtime becomes. The lack of appropriate security controls can increase the risk of viruses, destruction of data, external penetrations, or denial-of-service (DOS) attacks.

Such events can prevent the system from being used by normal users.

CIA –

The following answers are incorrect:

  • Integrity – Integrity is the principle that information should be protected from intentional, unauthorized, or accidental changes.
  • Availability – Availability is the principle that ensures that information is available and accessible to users when needed.
  • Accuracy – Accuracy is not a valid CIA attribute.

Which of the following Confidentiality, Integrity, Availability (CIA) attribute supports the principle of least privilege by providing access to information only to authorized and intended users?

CISA Question 1266

Question

Which of the following attack could be avoided by creating more security awareness in the organization and provide adequate security knowledge to all employees?

A. surf attack
B. Traffic analysis
C. Phishing
D. Interrupt attack

Answer

C. Phishing

Explanation

Phishing techniques include social engineering, link manipulation, spear phishing, whaling, dishing, or web site forgery techniques.

For your exam you should know the information below:

Phishing is the attempt to acquire sensitive information such as usernames, passwords, and credit card details (and sometimes, indirectly, money) by masquerading as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication. Communications purporting to be from popular social web sites, auction sites, banks, online payment processors or IT administrators are commonly used to lure unsuspecting public. Phishing emails may contain links to websites that are infected with malware. Phishing is typically carried out by email spoofing or instant messaging, and it often directs users to enter details at a fake website whose look and feel are almost identical to the legitimate one. Phishing is an example of social engineering techniques used to deceive users, and exploits the poor usability of current web security technologies. Attempts to deal with the growing number of reported phishing incidents include legislation, user training, public awareness, and technical security measures.

Spear phishing – Phishing attempts directed at specific individuals or companies have been termed spear phishing. Attackers may gather personal information about their target to increase their probability of success.

Link manipulation – Most methods of phishing use some form of technical deception designed to make a link in an email (and the spoofed website it leads to) appear to belong to the spoofed organization. Misspelled URLs or the use of sub domains are common tricks used by phishes. In the following example URL, http:// www.yourbank.example.com/, it appears as though the URL will take you to the example section of your bank website; actually this URL points to the “your bank” (i.e. phishing) section of the example website. Another common trick is to make the displayed text for a link (the text between the tags) suggest a reliable destination, when the link actually goes to the phishes’ site. The following example link, //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genuine, appears to direct the user to an article entitled “Genuine”; clicking on it will in fact take the user to the article entitled “Deception”. In the lower left hand corner of most browsers users can preview and verify where the link is going to take them. Hovering your cursor over the link for a couple of seconds may do a similar thing, but this can still be set by the phishes through the HTML tooltip tag.

Website forgery – Once a victim visits the phishing website, the deception is not over. Some phishing scams use JavaScript commands in order to alter the address bar. This is done either by placing a picture of a legitimate URL over the address bar, or by closing the original bar and opening up a new one with the legitimate URL. An attacker can even use flaws in a trusted website’s own scripts against the victim. These types of attacks (known as cross-site scripting) are particularly problematic, because they direct the user to sign in at their bank or service’s own web page, where everything from the web address to the security certificates appears correct. In reality, the link to the website is crafted to carry out the attack, making it very difficult to spot without specialist knowledge.

The following answers are incorrect:

  • Smurf Attack – Occurs when mix-configured network device allow packet to be sent to all hosts on a particular network via the broadcast address of the network
  • Traffic analysis – is the process of intercepting and examining messages in order to deduce information from patterns in communication. It can be performed even when the messages are encrypted and cannot be decrypted. In general, the greater the number of messages observed, or even intercepted and stored, the more can be inferred from the traffic. Traffic analysis can be performed in the context of military intelligence, counter-intelligence, or pattern-of-life analysis, and is a concern in computer security.
  • Interrupt attack – Interrupt attack occurs when a malicious action is performed by invoking the operating system to execute a particular system call.

CISA Question 1267

Question

Which of the following biometrics methods provides the HIGHEST accuracy and is LEAST accepted by users?

A. Palm Scan
B. Hand Geometry
C. Fingerprint
D. Retina scan

Answer

D. Retina scan

Explanation

Retina based biometric involves analyzing the layer of blood vessels situated at the back of the eye.

An established technology, this technique involves using a low-intensity light source through an optical coupler to scan the unique patterns of the retina. Retinal scanning can be quite accurate but does require the user to look into a receptacle and focus on a given point. This is not particularly convenient if you wear glasses or are concerned about having close contact with the reading device. For these reasons, retinal scanning is not warmly accepted by all users, even though the technology itself can work well.

For your exam you should know the information below:

Biometrics – Biometrics verifies an individual’s identity by analyzing a unique personal attribute or behavior, which is one of the most effective and accurate methods of verifying identification and not well received by society. Biometrics is a very sophisticated technology; thus, it is much more expensive and complex than the other types of identity verification processes. A biometric system can make authentication decisions based on an individual’s behavior, as in signature dynamics, but these can change over time and possibly be forged. Biometric systems that base authentication decisions on physical attributes (such as iris, retina, or fingerprint) provide more accuracy because physical attributes typically don’t change, absent some disfiguring injury, and are harder to impersonate

Biometrics is typically broken up into two different categories. The first is the physiological. These are traits that are physical attributes unique to a specific individual. Fingerprints are a common example of a physiological trait used in biometric systems. The second category of biometrics is known as behavioral. The behavioral authentication is also known as continuous authentication. The behavioral/continuous authentication prevents session hijacking attack. This is based on a characteristic of an individual to confirm his identity. An example is signature Dynamics. Physiological is “what you are” and behavioral is “what you do.”

When a biometric system rejects an authorized individual, it is called a Type I error (false rejection rate). When the system accepts impostors who should be rejected, it is called a Type II error (false acceptance rate). The goal is to obtain low numbers for each type of error, but Type II errors are the most dangerous and thus the most important to avoid.

When comparing different biometric systems, many different variables are used, but one of the most important metrics is the crossover error rate (CER). This rating is stated as a percentage and represents the point at which the false rejection rate equals the false acceptance rate. This rating is the most important measurement when determining the system’s accuracy. A biometric system that delivers a CER of 3 will be more accurate than a system that delivers a CER of 4.

Crossover error rate (CER) is also called equal error rate (EER).

Throughput describes the process of authenticating to a biometric system. This is also referred to as the biometric system response time. The primary consideration that should be put into the purchasing and implementation of biometric access control are user acceptance, accuracy and processing speed.

Biometric Considerations – In addition to the access control elements of a biometric system, there are several other considerations that are important to the integrity of the control environment. These are:

  • Resistance to counterfeiting
  • Data storage requirements
  • User acceptance
  • Reliability and
  • Target User and approach

Fingerprint – Fingerprints are made up of ridge endings and bifurcations exhibited by friction ridges and other detailed characteristics called minutiae. It is the distinctiveness of these minutiae that gives each individual a unique fingerprint. An individual places his finger on a device that reads the details of the fingerprint and compares this to a reference file. If the two match, the individual’s identity has been verified.

Palm Scan – The palm holds a wealth of information and has many aspects that are used to identify an individual. The palm has creases, ridges, and grooves throughout that are unique to a specific person. The palm scan also includes the fingerprints of each finger. An individual places his hand on the biometric device, which scans and captures this information. This information is compared to a reference file, and the identity is either verified or rejected.

Hand Geometry – The shape of a person’s hand (the shape, length, and width of the hand and fingers) defines hand geometry. This trait differs significantly between people and is used in some biometric systems to verify identity. A person places her hand on a device that has grooves for each finger. The system compares the geometry of each finger, and the hand as a whole, to the information in a reference file to verify that person’s identity.

Retina Scan – A system that reads a person’s retina scans the blood-vessel pattern of the retina on the backside of the eyeball. This pattern has shown to be extremely unique between different people. A camera is used to project a beam inside the eye and capture the pattern and compare it to a reference file recorded previously.

Iris Scan – An iris scan is a passive biometric control. The iris is the colored portion of the eye that surrounds the pupil. The iris has unique patterns, rifts, colors, rings, coronas, and furrows. The uniqueness of each of these characteristics within the iris is captured by a camera and compared with the information gathered during the enrollment phase. When using an iris pattern biometric system, the optical unit must be positioned so the sun does not shine into the aperture; thus, when implemented, it must have proper placement within the facility.

Signature Dynamics – When a person signs a signature, usually they do so in the same manner and speed each time. Signing a signature produces electrical signals that can be captured by a biometric system. The physical motions performed when someone is signing a document create these electrical signals. The signals provide unique characteristics that can be used to distinguish one individual from another. Signature dynamics provides more information than a static signature, so there are more variables to verify when confirming an individual’s identity and more assurance that this person is who he claims to be.

Keystroke Dynamics – Whereas signature dynamics is a method that captures the electrical signals when a person signs a name, keystroke dynamics captures electrical signals when a person types a certain phrase. As a person types a specified phrase, the biometric system captures the speed and motions of this action. Each individual has a certain style and speed, which translate into unique signals. This type of authentication is more effective than typing in a password, because a password is easily obtainable. It is much harder to repeat a person’s typing style than it is to acquire a password.

Voice Print – People’s speech sounds and patterns have many subtle distinguishing differences. A biometric system that is programmed to capture a voice print and compare it to the information held in a reference file can differentiate one individual from another. During the enrollment process, an individual is asked to say several different words.

Facial Scan – A system that scans a person’s face takes many attributes and characteristics into account. People have different bone structures, nose ridges, eye widths, forehead sizes, and chin shapes. These are all captured during a facial scan and compared to an earlier captured scan held within a reference record. If the information is a match, the person is positively identified.

Hand Topography – Whereas hand geometry looks at the size and width of an individual’s hand and fingers, hand topology looks at the different peaks and valleys of the hand, along with its overall shape and curvature. When an individual wants to be authenticated, she places her hand on the system. Off to one side of the system, a camera snaps a side-view picture of the hand from a different view and angle than that of systems that target hand geometry, and thus captures different data. This attribute is not unique enough to authenticate individuals by itself and is commonly used in conjunction with hand geometry.

Vascular Scan – Vascular Scan uses the blood vessel under the first layer of skin.

The following answers are incorrect:

  • Fingerprint – Fingerprints are made up of ridge endings and bifurcations exhibited by friction ridges and other detailed characteristics called minutiae. It is the distinctiveness of these minutiae that gives each individual a unique fingerprint. An individual places his finger on a device that reads the details of the fingerprint and compares this to a reference file. If the two match, the individual’s identity has been verified.
  • Hand Geometry – The shape of a person’s hand (the shape, length, and width of the hand and fingers) defines hand geometry. This trait differs significantly between people and is used in some biometric systems to verify identity. A person places her hand on a device that has grooves for each finger. The system compares the geometry of each finger, and the hand as a whole, to the information in a reference file to verify that person’s identity.
  • Palm Scan – The palm holds a wealth of information and has many aspects that are used to identify an individual. The palm has creases, ridges, and grooves throughout that are unique to a specific person. The palm scan also includes the fingerprints of each finger. An individual places his hand on the biometric device, which scans and captures this information. This information is compared to a reference file, and the identity is either verified or rejected.

CISA Question 1268

Question

Which of the following attack is MOSTLY performed by an attacker to steal the identity information of a user such as credit card number, passwords, etc?

A. Smurf attack
B. Traffic analysis
C. Harming
D. Interrupt attack

Answer

C. Harming

Explanation

Harming is a cyber attack intended to redirect a website’s traffic to another, bogus site. Harming can be conducted either by changing the hosts file on a victim’s computer or by exploitation of a vulnerability in DNS server software. DNS servers are computers responsible for resolving Internet names into their real IP addresses. Compromised DNS servers are sometimes referred to as “poisoned”. Harming requires unprotected access to target a computer, such as altering a customer’s home computer, rather than a corporate business server.

The term “phrasing” is a neologism based on the words “farming” and “phishing”. Phishing is a type of social-engineering attack to obtain access credentials, such as user names and passwords. In recent years, both phrasing and phishing have been used to gain information for online identity theft. Phrasing has become of major concern to businesses hosting ecommerce and online banking websites. Sophisticated measures known as anti-harming are required to protect against this serious threat. Antivirus software and spyware removal software cannot protect against harming.

For your exam you should know the information below:

Phishing is the attempt to acquire sensitive information such as usernames, passwords, and credit card details (and sometimes, indirectly, money) by masquerading as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication. Communications purporting to be from popular social web sites, auction sites, banks, online payment processors or IT administrators are commonly used to lure unsuspecting public. Phishing emails may contain links to websites that are infected with malware. Phishing is typically carried out by email spoofing or instant messaging, and it often directs users to enter details at a fake website whose look and feel are almost identical to the legitimate one. Phishing is an example of social engineering techniques used to deceive users, and exploits the poor usability of current web security technologies. Attempts to deal with the growing number of reported phishing incidents include legislation, user training, public awareness, and technical security measures.

Spear phishing – Phishing attempts directed at specific individuals or companies have been termed spear phishing. Attackers may gather personal information about their target to increase their probability of success.

Link manipulation – Most methods of phishing use some form of technical deception designed to make a link in an email (and the spoofed website it leads to) appear to belong to the spoofed organization. Misspelled URLs or the use of sub domains are common tricks used by phishes. In the following example URL, http:// www.yourbank.example.com/, it appears as though the URL will take you to the example section of your bank website; actually this URL points to the “your bank” (i.e. phishing) section of the example website. Another common trick is to make the displayed text for a link (the text between the are tags) suggest a reliable destination, when the link actually goes to the phishes’ site. The following example link, //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genuine, appears to direct the user to an article entitled “Genuine”; clicking on it will in fact take the user to the article entitled “Deception”. In the lower left hand corner of most browsers users can preview and verify where the link is going to take them.

Hovering your cursor over the link for a couple of seconds may do a similar thing, but this can still be set by the phishes through the HTML tooltip tag.

Website forgery – Once a victim visits the phishing website, the deception is not over. Some phishing scams use JavaScript commands in order to alter the address bar. This is done either by placing a picture of a legitimate URL over the address bar, or by closing the original bar and opening up a new one with the legitimate URL.

An attacker can even use flaws in a trusted website’s own scripts against the victim. These types of attacks (known as cross-site scripting) are particularly problematic, because they direct the user to sign in at their bank or service’s own web page, where everything from the web address to the security certificates appears correct. In reality, the link to the website is crafted to carry out the attack, making it very difficult to spot without specialist knowledge.

The following answers are incorrect:

  • Smurf Attack – Occurs when mix-configured network device allow packet to be sent to all hosts on a particular network via the broadcast address of the network.
  • Traffic analysis – is the process of intercepting and examining messages in order to deduce information from patterns in communication. It can be performed even when the messages are encrypted and cannot be decrypted. In general, the greater the number of messages observed, or even intercepted and stored, the more can be inferred from the traffic. Traffic analysis can be performed in the context of military intelligence, counter-intelligence, or pattern-of-life analysis, and is a concern in computer security.
  • Interrupt attack- Interrupt attack occurs when a malicious action is performed by invoking the operating system to execute a particular system call.

CISA Question 1269

Question

Which of the following attack includes social engineering, link manipulation or web site forgery techniques?

A. surf attack
B. Traffic analysis
C. Phishing
D. Interrupt attack

Answer

C. Phishing

Explanation

Phishing technique include social engineering, link manipulation or web site forgery techniques.

For your exam you should know the information below:

Phishing is the attempt to acquire sensitive information such as usernames, passwords, and credit card details (and sometimes, indirectly, money) by masquerading as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication. Communications purporting to be from popular social web sites, auction sites, banks, online payment processors or IT administrators are commonly used to lure unsuspecting public. Phishing emails may contain links to websites that are infected with malware. Phishing is typically carried out by email spoofing or instant messaging, and it often directs users to enter details at a fake website whose look and feel are almost identical to the legitimate one. Phishing is an example of social engineering techniques used to deceive users, and exploits the poor usability of current web security technologies. Attempts to deal with the growing number of reported phishing incidents include legislation, user training, public awareness, and technical security measures.

Spear phishing – Phishing attempts directed at specific individuals or companies have been termed spear phishing. Attackers may gather personal information about their target to increase their probability of success.

Link manipulation – Most methods of phishing use some form of technical deception designed to make a link in an email (and the spoofed website it leads to) appear to belong to the spoofed organization. Misspelled URLs or the use of sub domains are common tricks used by phishes. In the following example URL, http:// www.yourbank.example.com/, it appears as though the URL will take you to the example section of the your bank website; actually this URL points to the “your bank” (i.e. phishing) section of the example website. Another common trick is to make the displayed text for a link (the text between the tags) suggest a reliable destination, when the link actually goes to the phishes’ site. The following example link, //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genuine, appears to direct the user to an article entitled “Genuine”; clicking on it will in fact take the user to the article entitled “Deception”. In the lower left hand corner of most browsers users can preview and verify where the link is going to take them. Hovering your cursor over the link for a couple of seconds may do a similar thing, but this can still be set by the phishes through the HTML tooltip tag.

Website forgery – Once a victim visits the phishing website, the deception is not over. Some phishing scams use JavaScript commands in order to alter the address bar. This is done either by placing a picture of a legitimate URL over the address bar, or by closing the original bar and opening up a new one with the legitimate URL.

An attacker can even use flaws in a trusted website’s own scripts against the victim. These types of attacks (known as cross-site scripting) are particularly problematic, because they direct the user to sign in at their bank or service’s own web page, where everything from the web address to the security certificates appears correct. In reality, the link to the website is crafted to carry out the attack, making it very difficult to spot without specialist knowledge.

The following answers are incorrect:

  • Smurf Attack – Occurs when mix-configured network device allow packet to be sent to all hosts on a particular network via the broadcast address of the network
  • Traffic analysis – is the process of intercepting and examining messages in order to deduce information from patterns in communication. It can be performed even when the messages are encrypted and cannot be decrypted. In general, the greater the number of messages observed, or even intercepted and stored, the more can be inferred from the traffic. Traffic analysis can be performed in the context of military intelligence, counter-intelligence, or pattern-of-life analysis, and is a concern in computer security.
  • Interrupt attack- Interrupt attack occurs when a malicious action is performed by invoking the operating system to execute a particular system call.

CISA Question 1270

Question

Which of the following attack occurs when a malicious action is performed by invoking the operating system to execute a particular system call?

A. Eavesdropping
B. Traffic analysis
C. Masquerading
D. Interrupt attack

Answer

D. Interrupt attack

Explanation

An Interrupt attack occurs when a malicious action is performed by invoking the operating system to execute a particular system call.

Example: A boot sector virus typically issues an interrupt to execute a write to the boot sector.

The following answers are incorrect:

Eavesdropping – is the act of secretly listening to the private conversation of others without their consent, as defined by Black’s Law Dictionary.

This is commonly thought to be unethical and there is an old adage that “eavesdroppers seldom hear anything good of themselves…eavesdroppers always try to listen to matters that concern them.”

Traffic analysis – is the process of intercepting and examining messages in order to deduce information from patterns in communication. It can be performed even when the messages are encrypted and cannot be decrypted. In general, the greater the number of messages observed, or even intercepted and stored, the more can be inferred from the traffic. Traffic analysis can be performed in the context of military intelligence, counter-intelligence, or pattern-of-life analysis, and is a concern in computer security.

Masquerading – A masquerade attack is an attack that uses a fake identity, such as a network identity, to gain unauthorized access to personal computer information through legitimate access identification. If an authorization process is not fully protected, it can become extremely vulnerable to a masquerade attack.

Masquerade attacks can be perpetrated using stolen passwords and logons, by locating gaps in programs, or by finding a way around the authentication process.

The attack can be triggered either by someone within the organization or by an outsider if the organization is connected to a public network.

The amount of access masquerade attackers get depends on the level of authorization they’ve managed to attain. As such, masquerade attackers can have a full smorgasbord of cyber crime opportunities if they’ve gained the highest access authority to a business organization. Personal attacks, although less common, can also be harmful.

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