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ISACA CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Exam Questions and Answers – 29

The latest ISACA CISA (Certified Information Systems Auditor) certification actual real practice exam question and answer (Q&A) dumps are available free, which are helpful for you to pass the ISACA CISA exam and earn ISACA CISA certification.

ISACA Certified Information Systems Auditor (CISA) Exam Questions and Answers

CISA Question 3081

Question

A maturity model can be used to aid the implementation of IT governance by identifying:

A. critical success factors (CSF)
B. performance drivers
C. improvement opportunities
D. accountabilities

Answer

C. improvement opportunities

CISA Question 3082

Question

Which of the following dynamic interaction of a Business Model for Information Security (BMIS) is a place to introduce possible solutions such as feedback loops; alignment with process improvement; and consideration of emergent issues in system design life cycle, change control, and risk management?

A. Governing
B. Culture
C. Enabling and support
D. Emergence

Answer

D. Emergence

Explanation

Emergence – which connotes surfacing, developing, growing and evolving – refers to patterns that arise in the life of the enterprise that appear to have no obvious cause and whose outcomes seem impossible to predict and control. The emergence dynamic interconnection (between people and processes) is a place to introduce possible solutions such as feedback loops; alignment with process improvement; and consideration of emergent issues in system design life cycle, change control, and risk management.

For your exam you should know the information below.
Business Model for Information Security
The Business Model for Information Security (BMIS) originated at the Institute for Critical Information Infrastructure Protection at the Marshall School of Business at the University of Southern California in the USA. ISACA has undertaken the development of the Systemic Security Management Model. The BMIS takes a business-oriented approach to managing information security, building on the foundational concepts developed by the Institute. The model utilizes systems thinking to clarify complex relationships within the enterprise, and thus to more effectively manage security. The elements and dynamic interconnections that form the basis of the model establish the boundaries of an information security program and model how the program functions and reacts to internal and external change. The BMIS provides the context for frameworks such as Cubit.
The essence of systems theory is that a system needs to be viewed holistically – not merely as a sum of its parts – to be accurately understood. A holistic approach examines the system as a complete functioning unit. Another tenet of systems theory is that one part of the system enables understanding of other parts of the system. -Systems thinking- is a widely recognized term that refers to the examination of how systems interact, how complex systems work and why -the whole is more than the sum of its parts.- Systems theory is most accurately described as a complex network of events, relationships, reactions, consequences, technologies, processes and people that interact in often unseen and unexpected ways. Studying the behaviors and results of the interactions can assist the manager to better understand the organizational system and the way it functions. While management of any discipline within the enterprise can be enhanced by approaching it from a systems thinking perspective, its implementation will certainly help with managing risk.
The success that the systems approach has achieved in other fields bodes well for the benefits it can bring to security. The often dramatic failures of enterprises to adequately address security issues in recent years are due, to a significant extent, to their inability to define security and present it in a way that is comprehensible and relevant to all stakeholders. Utilizing a systems approach to information security management will help information security managers address complex and dynamic environments, and will generate a beneficial effect on collaboration within the enterprise, adaptation to operational change, navigation of strategic uncertainty and tolerance of the impact of external factors. The model is represented below.

Business Model for Information Security

As illustrated in above, the model is best viewed as a flexible, three-dimensional, pyramid-shaped structure made up of four elements linked together by six dynamic interconnections.
All aspects of the model interact with each other. If any one part of the model is changed, not addressed or managed inappropriately, the equilibrium of the model is potentially at risk. The dynamic interconnections act as tensions, exerting a push/pull force in reaction to changes in the enterprise, allowing the model to adapt as needed.

The four elements of the model are:
1. Organization Design and Strategy – organization is a network of people, assets and processes interacting with each other in defined roles and working toward a common goal.
An enterprise’s strategy specifies its business goals and the objectives to be achieved as well as the values and missions to be pursued. It is the enterprise’s formula for success and sets its basic direction. The strategy should adapt to external and internal factors. Resources are the primary material to design the strategy and can be of different types (people, equipment, know-how). Design defines how the organization implements its strategy. Processes, culture and architecture are important in determining the design.

2. People – The human resources and the security issues that surround them. It defines who implements (through design) each part of the strategy. It represents a human collective and must take into account values, behaviors and biases. Internally, it is critical for the information security manager to work with the human resources and legal departments to address issues such as:
Recruitment strategies (access, background checks, interviews, roles and responsibilities)
Employment issues (location of office, access to tools and data, training and awareness, movement within the enterprise)
Termination (reasons for leaving, timing of exit, roles and responsibilities, access to systems, access to other employees). Externally, customers, suppliers, media, stakeholders and others can have a strong influence on the enterprise and need to be considered within the security posture.

3. Process – Includes formal and informal mechanisms (large and small, simple and complex) to get things done and provides a vital link to all of the dynamic interconnections.
Processes identify, measure, manage and control risk, availability, integrity and confidentiality, and they also ensure accountability. They derive from the strategy and implement the operational part of the organization element.

To be advantageous to the enterprise, processes must:
Meet business requirements and align with policy
Consider emergence and be adaptable to changing requirements
Be well documented and communicated to appropriate human resources
Be reviewed periodically, once they are in place, to ensure efficiency and effectiveness

4. Technology – Composed of all of the tools, applications and infrastructure that make processes more efficient. As an evolving element that experiences frequent changes, it has its own dynamic risk. Given the typical enterprise’s dependence on technology, technology constitutes a core part of the enterprise’s infrastructure and a critical component in accomplishing its mission.
Technology is often seen by the enterprise’s management team as a way to resolve security threats and risk. While technical controls are helpful in mitigating some types of risk, technology should not be viewed as an information security solution.
Technology is greatly impacted by users and by organizational culture. Some individuals still mistrust technology; some have not learned to use it; and others feel it slows them down. Regardless of the reason, information security managers must be aware that many people will try to sidestep technical controls.

Dynamic Interconnections –
The dynamic interconnections are what link the elements together and exert a multidirectional force that pushes and pulls as things change.
Actions and behaviors that occur in the dynamic interconnections can force the model out of balance or bring it back to equilibrium.

The six dynamic interconnections are:
1. Governing – Governing is the steering of the enterprise and demands strategic leadership. Governing sets limits within which an enterprise operates and is implemented within processes to monitor performance, describe activities and achieve compliance while also providing adaptability to emergent conditions.
Governing incorporates ensuring that objectives are determined and defined, ascertaining that risks are managed appropriately, and verifying that the enterprise’s resources are used responsibly.

2. Culture – Culture is a pattern of behaviors, beliefs, assumptions, attitudes and ways of doing things. It is emergent and learned, and it creates a sense of comfort. Culture evolves as a type of shared history as a group goes through a set of common experiences. Those similar experiences cause certain responses, which become a set of expected and shared behaviors. These behaviors become unwritten rules, which become norms that are shared by all people who have that common history. It is important to understand the culture of the enterprise because it profoundly influences what information is considered, how it is interpreted and what will be done with it. Culture may exist on many levels, such as national (legislation/regulation, political and traditional), organizational (policies, hierarchical style and expectations) and social (family, etiquette). It is created from both external and internal factors, and is influenced by and influences organizational patterns.

3. Enabling and support – The enabling and support dynamic interconnection connects the technology element to the process element. One way to help ensure that people comply with technical security measures, policies and procedures is to make processes usable and easy.
Transparency can help generate acceptance for security controls by assuring users that security will not inhibit their ability to work effectively.
Many of the actions that affect both technology and processes occur in the enabling and support dynamic interconnection. Policies, standards and guidelines must be designed to support the needs of the business by reducing or eliminating conflicts of interest, remaining flexible to support changing business objectives, and being acceptable and easy for people to follow.

4. Emergence – Emergence – which connotes surfacing, developing, growing and evolving – refers to patterns that arise in the life of the enterprise that appear to have no obvious cause and whose outcomes seem impossible to predict and control. The emergence dynamic interconnection (between people and processes) is a place to introduce possible solutions such as feedback loops; alignment with process improvement; and consideration of emergent issues in system design life cycle, change control, and risk management.

5. Human factors – The human factors dynamic interconnection represents the interaction and gap between technology and people and, as such, is critical to an information security program. If people do not understand how to use the technology, do not embrace the technology or will not follow pertinent policies, serious security problems can evolve. Internal threats such as data leakage, data theft and misuse of data can occur within this dynamic interconnection. Human factors may arise because of age, experience level and/or cultural experiences. Because human factors are critical components in maintaining balance within the model, it is important to train all of the enterprise’s human resources on pertinent skills.

6. Architecture – A security architecture is a comprehensive and formal encapsulation of the people, processes, policies and technology that comprise an enterprise’s security practices. A robust business information architecture is essential to understanding the need for security and designing the security architecture. It is within the architecture dynamic interconnection that the enterprise can ensure defense in depth.
The design describes how the security controls are positioned and how they relate to the overall IT architecture. An enterprise security architecture facilitates security capabilities across lines of businesses in a consistent and a cost-effective manner and enables enterprises to be proactive with their security investment decisions.

The following answers are incorrect:
Governing – Governing is the steering of the enterprise and demands strategic leadership. Governing sets limits within which an enterprise operates and is implemented within processes to monitor performance, describe activities and achieve compliance while also providing adaptability to emergent conditions.
Governing incorporates ensuring that objectives are determined and defined, ascertaining that risks are managed appropriately, and verifying that the enterprise’s resources are used responsibly.
Enabling and support – The enabling and support dynamic interconnection connects the technology element to the process element. One way to help ensure that people comply with technical security measures, policies and procedures is to make processes usable and easy. Transparency can help generate acceptance for security controls by assuring users that security will not inhibit their ability to work effectively. Many of the actions that affect both technology and processes occur in the enabling and support dynamic interconnection. Policies, standards and guidelines must be designed to support the needs of the business by reducing or eliminating conflicts of interest, remaining flexible to support changing business objectives, and being acceptable and easy for people to follow.
Culture – Culture is a pattern of behaviors, beliefs, assumptions, attitudes and ways of doing things. It is emergent and learned, and it creates a sense of comfort.
Culture evolves as a type of shared history as a group goes through a set of common experiences. Those similar experiences cause certain responses, which become a set of expected and shared behaviors. These behaviors become unwritten rules, which become norms that are shared by all people who have that common history. It is important to understand the culture of the enterprise because it profoundly influences what information is considered, how it is interpreted and what will be done with it. Culture may exist on many levels, such as national (legislation/regulation, political and traditional), organizational (policies, hierarchical style and expectations) and social (family, etiquette). It is created from both external and internal factors, and is influenced by and influences organizational patterns.

CISA Question 3083

Question

Which of the following dynamic interaction of a Business Model for Information Security (BMIS) is a pattern of behaviors, effects, assumptions, attitude and ways of doing things?

A. Governing
B. Culture
C. Enabling and support
D. Emergence

Answer

B. Culture

Explanation

Culture is a pattern of behaviors, beliefs, assumptions, attitudes and ways of doing things. It is emergent and learned, and it creates a sense of comfort. Culture evolves as a type of shared history as a group goes through a set of common experiences. Those similar experiences cause certain responses, which become a set of expected and shared behaviors. These behaviors become unwritten rules, which become norms that are shared by all people who have that common history. It is important to understand the culture of the enterprise because it profoundly influences what information is considered, how it is interpreted and what will be done with it. Culture may exist on many levels, such as national (legislation/regulation, political and traditional), organizational (policies, hierarchical style and expectations) and social (family, etiquette). It is created from both external and internal factors, and is influenced by and influences organizational patterns.

For your exam you should know the information below.
Business Model for Information Security
The Business Model for Information Security (BMIS) originated at the Institute for Critical Information Infrastructure Protection at the Marshall School of Business at the University of Southern California in the USA. ISACA has undertaken the development of the Systemic Security Management Model. The BMIS takes a business-oriented approach to managing information security, building on the foundational concepts developed by the Institute. The model utilizes systems thinking to clarify complex relationships within the enterprise, and thus to more effectively manage security. The elements and dynamic interconnections that form the basis of the model establish the boundaries of an information security program and model how the program functions and reacts to internal and external change. The BMIS provides the context for frameworks such as Cubit.
The essence of systems theory is that a system needs to be viewed holistically – not merely as a sum of its parts – to be accurately understood. A holistic approach examines the system as a complete functioning unit. Another tenet of systems theory is that one part of the system enables understanding of other parts of the system. -Systems thinking- is a widely recognized term that refers to the examination of how systems interact, how complex systems work and why -the whole is more than the sum of its parts.- Systems theory is most accurately described as a complex network of events, relationships, reactions, consequences, technologies, processes and people that interact in often unseen and unexpected ways. Studying the behaviors and results of the interactions can assist the manager to better understand the organizational system and the way it functions. While management of any discipline within the enterprise can be enhanced by approaching it from a systems thinking perspective, its implementation will certainly help with managing risk.
The success that the systems approach has achieved in other fields bodes well for the benefits it can bring to security. The often dramatic failures of enterprises to adequately address security issues in recent years are due, to a significant extent, to their inability to define security and present it in a way that is comprehensible and relevant to all stakeholders. Utilizing a systems approach to information security management will help information security managers address complex and dynamic environments, and will generate a beneficial effect on collaboration within the enterprise, adaptation to operational change, navigation of strategic uncertainty and tolerance of the impact of external factors. The model is represented below.

Business Model for Information Security

As illustrated in above, the model is best viewed as a flexible, three-dimensional, pyramid-shaped structure made up of four elements linked together by six dynamic interconnections.
All aspects of the model interact with each other. If any one part of the model is changed, not addressed or managed inappropriately, the equilibrium of the model is potentially at risk. The dynamic interconnections act as tensions, exerting a push/pull force in reaction to changes in the enterprise, allowing the model to adapt as needed.

The four elements of the model are:
1. Organization Design and Strategy – organization is a network of people, assets and processes interacting with each other in defined roles and working toward a common goal.
An enterprise’s strategy specifies its business goals and the objectives to be achieved as well as the values and missions to be pursued. It is the enterprise’s formula for success and sets its basic direction. The strategy should adapt to external and internal factors. Resources are the primary material to design the strategy and can be of different types (people, equipment, know-how). Design defines how the organization implements its strategy. Processes, culture and architecture are important in determining the design.

2. People – The human resources and the security issues that surround them. It defines who implements (through design) each part of the strategy. It represents a human collective and must take into account values, behaviors and biases. Internally, it is critical for the information security manager to work with the human resources and legal departments to address issues such as:
Recruitment strategies (access, background checks, interviews, roles and responsibilities)
Employment issues (location of office, access to tools and data, training and awareness, movement within the enterprise)
Termination (reasons for leaving, timing of exit, roles and responsibilities, access to systems, access to other employees). Externally, customers, suppliers, media, stakeholders and others can have a strong influence on the enterprise and need to be considered within the security posture.

3. Process – Includes formal and informal mechanisms (large and small, simple and complex) to get things done and provides a vital link to all of the dynamic interconnections.
Processes identify, measure, manage and control risk, availability, integrity and confidentiality, and they also ensure accountability. They derive from the strategy and implement the operational part of the organization element.

To be advantageous to the enterprise, processes must:
Meet business requirements and align with policy
Consider emergence and be adaptable to changing requirements
Be well documented and communicated to appropriate human resources
Be reviewed periodically, once they are in place, to ensure efficiency and effectiveness

4. Technology – Composed of all of the tools, applications and infrastructure that make processes more efficient. As an evolving element that experiences frequent changes, it has its own dynamic risk. Given the typical enterprise’s dependence on technology, technology constitutes a core part of the enterprise’s infrastructure and a critical component in accomplishing its mission.
Technology is often seen by the enterprise’s management team as a way to resolve security threats and risk. While technical controls are helpful in mitigating some types of risk, technology should not be viewed as an information security solution.
Technology is greatly impacted by users and by organizational culture. Some individuals still mistrust technology; some have not learned to use it; and others feel it slows them down. Regardless of the reason, information security managers must be aware that many people will try to sidestep technical controls.

Dynamic Interconnections –
The dynamic interconnections are what link the elements together and exert a multidirectional force that pushes and pulls as things change.
Actions and behaviors that occur in the dynamic interconnections can force the model out of balance or bring it back to equilibrium.

The six dynamic interconnections are:
1. Governing – Governing is the steering of the enterprise and demands strategic leadership. Governing sets limits within which an enterprise operates and is implemented within processes to monitor performance, describe activities and achieve compliance while also providing adaptability to emergent conditions.
Governing incorporates ensuring that objectives are determined and defined, ascertaining that risks are managed appropriately, and verifying that the enterprise’s resources are used responsibly.

2. Culture – Culture is a pattern of behaviors, beliefs, assumptions, attitudes and ways of doing things. It is emergent and learned, and it creates a sense of comfort. Culture evolves as a type of shared history as a group goes through a set of common experiences. Those similar experiences cause certain responses, which become a set of expected and shared behaviors. These behaviors become unwritten rules, which become norms that are shared by all people who have that common history. It is important to understand the culture of the enterprise because it profoundly influences what information is considered, how it is interpreted and what will be done with it. Culture may exist on many levels, such as national (legislation/regulation, political and traditional), organizational (policies, hierarchical style and expectations) and social (family, etiquette). It is created from both external and internal factors, and is influenced by and influences organizational patterns.

3. Enabling and support – The enabling and support dynamic interconnection connects the technology element to the process element. One way to help ensure that people comply with technical security measures, policies and procedures is to make processes usable and easy.
Transparency can help generate acceptance for security controls by assuring users that security will not inhibit their ability to work effectively.
Many of the actions that affect both technology and processes occur in the enabling and support dynamic interconnection. Policies, standards and guidelines must be designed to support the needs of the business by reducing or eliminating conflicts of interest, remaining flexible to support changing business objectives, and being acceptable and easy for people to follow.

4. Emergence – Emergence – which connotes surfacing, developing, growing and evolving – refers to patterns that arise in the life of the enterprise that appear to have no obvious cause and whose outcomes seem impossible to predict and control. The emergence dynamic interconnection (between people and processes) is a place to introduce possible solutions such as feedback loops; alignment with process improvement; and consideration of emergent issues in system design life cycle, change control, and risk management.

5. Human factors – The human factors dynamic interconnection represents the interaction and gap between technology and people and, as such, is critical to an information security program. If people do not understand how to use the technology, do not embrace the technology or will not follow pertinent policies, serious security problems can evolve. Internal threats such as data leakage, data theft and misuse of data can occur within this dynamic interconnection. Human factors may arise because of age, experience level and/or cultural experiences. Because human factors are critical components in maintaining balance within the model, it is important to train all of the enterprise’s human resources on pertinent skills.

6. Architecture – A security architecture is a comprehensive and formal encapsulation of the people, processes, policies and technology that comprise an enterprise’s security practices. A robust business information architecture is essential to understanding the need for security and designing the security architecture. It is within the architecture dynamic interconnection that the enterprise can ensure defense in depth.
The design describes how the security controls are positioned and how they relate to the overall IT architecture. An enterprise security architecture facilitates security capabilities across lines of businesses in a consistent and a cost-effective manner and enables enterprises to be proactive with their security investment decisions.

The following answers are incorrect:
Governing – Governing is the steering of the enterprise and demands strategic leadership. Governing sets limits within which an enterprise operates and is implemented within processes to monitor performance, describe activities and achieve compliance while also providing adaptability to emergent conditions.
Governing incorporates ensuring that objectives are determined and defined, ascertaining that risks are managed appropriately, and verifying that the enterprise’s resources are used responsibly.
Enabling and support – The enabling and support dynamic interconnection connects the technology element to the process element. One way to help ensure that people comply with technical security measures, policies and procedures is to make processes usable and easy. Transparency can help generate acceptance for security controls by assuring users that security will not inhibit their ability to work effectively. Many of the actions that affect both technology and processes occur in the enabling and support dynamic interconnection. Policies, standards and guidelines must be designed to support the needs of the business by reducing or eliminating conflicts of interest, remaining flexible to support changing business objectives, and being acceptable and easy for people to follow.
Emergence – Emergence – which connotes surfacing, developing, growing and evolving – refers to patterns that arise in the life of the enterprise that appear to have no obvious cause and whose outcomes seem impossible to predict and control. The emergence dynamic interconnection (between people and processes) is a place to introduce possible solutions such as feedback loops; alignment with process improvement; and consideration of emergent issues in system design life cycle, change control, and risk management.

CISA Question 3084

Question

Which of the following answer specifies the correct sequence of levels within the Capability Maturity Model (CMM)?

A. Initial, Managed, Defined, Quantitatively managed, optimized
B. Initial, Managed, Defined, optimized, Quantitatively managed
C. Initial, Defined, Managed, Quantitatively managed, optimized
D. Initial, Managed, Quantitatively managed, Defined, optimized

Answer

A. Initial, Managed, Defined, Quantitatively managed, optimized

Explanation

Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) mode:
Maturity model – A maturity model can be viewed as a set of structured levels that describe how well the behaviors, practices and processes of an organization can reliably and sustainable produce required outcomes.

CMMI Levels

A maturity model can be used as a benchmark for comparison and as an aid to understanding – for example, for comparative assessment of different organizations where there is something in common that can be used as a basis for comparison. In the case of the CMM, for example, the basis for comparison would be the organizations’ software development processes.

Structure –
The model involves five aspects:
Maturity Levels: a 5-level process maturity continuum – where the uppermost (5th) level is a notional ideal state where processes would be systematically managed by a combination of process optimization and continuous process improvement.
Key Process Areas: a Key Process Area identifies a cluster of related activities that, when performed together, achieve a set of goals considered important.
Goals: the goals of a key process area summarize the states that must exist for that key process area to have been implemented in an effective and lasting way.
The extent to which the goals have been accomplished is an indicator of how much capability the organization has established at that maturity level. The goals signify the scope, boundaries, and intent of each key process area.
Common Features: common features include practices that implement and institutionalize a key process area. There are five types of common features: commitment to perform, ability to perform, activities performed, measurement and analysis, and verifying implementation.
Key Practices: The key practices describe the elements of infrastructure and practice that contribute most effectively to the implementation and institutionalization of the area.

Levels –
There are five levels defined along the continuum of the model and, according to the SEI: “Predictability, effectiveness, and control of an organization’s software processes are believed to improve as the organization moves up these five levels. While not rigorous, the empirical evidence to date supports this belief”.[citation needed]
Initial (chaotic, ad hoc, individual heroics) – the starting point for use of a new or undocumented repeat process.
Repeatable – the process is at least documented sufficiently such that repeating the same steps may be attempted.
Defined – the process is defined/confirmed as a standard business process, and decomposed to levels 0, 1 and 2 (the last being Work Instructions).
Managed – the process is quantitatively managed in accordance with agreed-upon metrics.
Optimizing – process management includes deliberate process optimization/improvement.
Within each of these maturity levels are Key Process Areas which characteristic that level, and for each such area there are five factors: goals, commitment, ability, measurement, and verification. These are not necessarily unique to CMM, representing – as they do – the stages that organizations must go through on the way to becoming mature.
The model provides a theoretical continuum along which process maturity can be developed incrementally from one level to the next. Skipping levels is not allowed/feasible.

Level 1 – Initial (Chaotic)
It is characteristic of processes at this level that they are (typically) undocumented and in a state of dynamic change, tending to be driven in an ad hoc, uncontrolled and reactive manner by users or events. This provides a chaotic or unstable environment for the processes.

Level 2 – Repeatable –
It is characteristic of processes at this level that some processes are repeatable, possibly with consistent results. Process discipline is unlikely to be rigorous, but where it exists it may help to ensure that existing processes are maintained during times of stress.

Level 3 – Defined –
It is characteristic of processes at this level that there are sets of defined and documented standard processes established and subject to some degree of improvement over time. These standard processes are in place (i.e., they are the AS-IS processes) and used to establish consistency of process performance across the organization.

Level 4 – Managed –
It is characteristic of processes at this level that, using process metrics, management can effectively control the AS-IS process (e.g., for software development ). In particular, management can identify ways to adjust and adapt the process to particular projects without measurable losses of quality or deviations from specifications. Process Capability is established from this level.

Level 5 – Optimizing –
It is a characteristic of processes at this level that the focus is on continually improving process performance through both incremental and innovative technological changes/improvements.

At maturity level 5, processes are concerned with addressing statistical common causes of process variation and changing the process (for example, to shift the mean of the process performance) to improve process performance. This would be done at the same time as maintaining the likelihood of achieving the established quantitative process-improvement objectives.

The following were incorrect answers:
The other option specified in the option does not provide correct sequence.

CISA Question 3085

Question

Which of the following step of PDCA request a corrective actions on significant differences between the actual versus the planned result?

A. Plan
B. Do
C. Check
D. Act

Answer

D. Act

Explanation

Act – Request corrective actions on significant differences between actual and planned results. Analyze the differences to determine their root causes. Determine where to apply changes that will include improvement of the process or product. When a pass through these four steps does not result in the need to improve, the scope to which PDCA is applied may be refined to plan and improve with more detail in the next iteration of the cycle, or attention needs to be placed in a different stage of the process.

For your exam you should know the information below:
PDCA (plan-do-check-act or plan-do-check-adjust) is an iterative four-step management method used in business for the control and continuous improvement of processes and products. It is also known as the Deming circle/cycle/wheel, Stewart cycle, control circle/cycle, or plan-do-study-act (PDSA). Another version of this PDCA cycle is OPDCA. The added “O” stands for observation or as some versions say “Grasp the current condition.”

The steps in each successive PDCA cycle are:

PDCA cycle

PLAN – Establish the objectives and processes necessary to deliver results in accordance with the expected output (the target or goals). By establishing output expectations, the completeness and accuracy of the spec is also a part of the targeted improvement. When possible start on a small scale to test possible effects.

DO – Implement the plan, execute the process, make the product. Collect data for charting and analysis in the following “CHECK” and “ACT” steps.

CHECK – Study the actual results (measured and collected in “DO” above) and compare against the expected results (targets or goals from the “PLAN”) to ascertain any differences. Look for deviation in implementation from the plan and also look for the appropriateness and completeness of the plan to enable the execution, i.e., “Do”. Charting data can make this much easier to see trends over several PDCA cycles and in order to convert the collected data into information. Information is what you need for the next step “ACT”.

ACT – Request corrective actions on significant differences between actual and planned results. Analyze the differences to determine their root causes. Determine where to apply changes that will include improvement of the process or product. When a pass through these four steps does not result in the need to improve, the scope to which PDCA is applied may be refined to plan and improve with more detail in the next iteration of the cycle, or attention needs to be placed in a different stage of the process.

The following answers are incorrect:
PLAN – Establish the objectives and processes necessary to deliver results in accordance with the expected output (the target or goals).
DO – Implement the plan, execute the process, make the product. Collect data for charting and analysis in the following “CHECK” and “ACT” steps.
CHECK – Study the actual results (measured and collected in “DO” above) and compare against the expected results (targets or goals from the “PLAN”) to ascertain any differences

CISA Question 3086

Question

Which of the following step of PDCA study the actual result and compares it against the expected result?

A. Plan
B. Do
C. Check
D. Act

Answer

C. Check

Explanation

Check – Study the actual results (measured and collected in “DO” above) and compare against the expected results (targets or goals from the “PLAN”) to ascertain any differences. Look for deviation in implementation from the plan and also look for the appropriateness and completeness of the plan to enable the execution, i.e., “Do”. Charting data can make this much easier to see trends over several PDCA cycles and in order to convert the collected data into information.

Information is what you need for the next step “ACT”.

For your exam you should know the information below:
PDCA (plan-do-check-act or plan-do-check-adjust) is an iterative four-step management method used in business for the control and continuous improvement of processes and products. It is also known as the Deming circle/cycle/wheel, Stewart cycle, control circle/cycle, or plan-do-study-act (PDSA). Another version of this PDCA cycle is OPDCA. The added “O” stands for observation or as some versions say “Grasp the current condition.”

The steps in each successive PDCA cycle are:

PDCA cycle

PLAN – Establish the objectives and processes necessary to deliver results in accordance with the expected output (the target or goals). By establishing output expectations, the completeness and accuracy of the spec is also a part of the targeted improvement. When possible start on a small scale to test possible effects.

DO – Implement the plan, execute the process, make the product. Collect data for charting and analysis in the following “CHECK” and “ACT” steps.

CHECK – Study the actual results (measured and collected in “DO” above) and compare against the expected results (targets or goals from the “PLAN”) to ascertain any differences. Look for deviation in implementation from the plan and also look for the appropriateness and completeness of the plan to enable the execution, i.e., “Do”. Charting data can make this much easier to see trends over several PDCA cycles and in order to convert the collected data into information. Information is what you need for the next step “ACT”.

ACT – Request corrective actions on significant differences between actual and planned results. Analyze the differences to determine their root causes. Determine where to apply changes that will include improvement of the process or product. When a pass through these four steps does not result in the need to improve, the scope to which PDCA is applied may be refined to plan and improve with more detail in the next iteration of the cycle, or attention needs to be placed in a different stage of the process.

The following answers are incorrect:
PLAN – Establish the objectives and processes necessary to deliver results in accordance with the expected output (the target or goals).
DO – Implement the plan, execute the process, make the product. Collect data for charting and analysis in the following “CHECK” and “ACT” steps.
ACT -Request corrective actions on significant differences between actual and planned results. Analyze the differences to determine their root causes. Determine where to apply changes that will include improvement of the process or product.

CISA Question 3087

Question

Which of the following step of PDCA implement the plan, execute the process and make product?

A. Plan
B. Do
C. Check
D. Act

Answer

B. Do

Explanation

Do – Implement the plan, execute the process, make the product. Collect data for charting and analysis in the following “CHECK” and “ACT” steps.

For your exam you should know the information below:
PDCA (plan-do-check-act or plan-do-check-adjust) is an iterative four-step management method used in business for the control and continuous improvement of processes and products. It is also known as the Deming circle/cycle/wheel, Stewart cycle, control circle/cycle, or plan-do-study-act (PDSA). Another version of this PDCA cycle is OPDCA. The added “O” stands for observation or as some versions say “Grasp the current condition.”

The steps in each successive PDCA cycle are:

PDCA cycle

PLAN – Establish the objectives and processes necessary to deliver results in accordance with the expected output (the target or goals). By establishing output expectations, the completeness and accuracy of the spec is also a part of the targeted improvement. When possible start on a small scale to test possible effects.

DO – Implement the plan, execute the process, make the product. Collect data for charting and analysis in the following “CHECK” and “ACT” steps.

CHECK – Study the actual results (measured and collected in “DO” above) and compare against the expected results (targets or goals from the “PLAN”) to ascertain any differences. Look for deviation in implementation from the plan and also look for the appropriateness and completeness of the plan to enable the execution, i.e., “Do”. Charting data can make this much easier to see trends over several PDCA cycles and in order to convert the collected data into information. Information is what you need for the next step “ACT”.

ACT – Request corrective actions on significant differences between actual and planned results. Analyze the differences to determine their root causes. Determine where to apply changes that will include improvement of the process or product. When a pass through these four steps does not result in the need to improve, the scope to which PDCA is applied may be refined to plan and improve with more detail in the next iteration of the cycle, or attention needs to be placed in a different stage of the process.

The following answers are incorrect:
PLAN – Establish the objectives and processes necessary to deliver results in accordance with the expected output (the target or goals).
CHECK – Study the actual results (measured and collected in “DO” above) and compare against the expected results (targets or goals from the “PLAN”) to ascertain any differences
ACT -Request corrective actions on significant differences between actual and planned results. Analyze the differences to determine their root causes. Determine where to apply changes that will include improvement of the process or product.

CISA Question 3088

Question

Which of the following step of PDCA establishes the objectives and processes necessary to deliver results in accordance with the expected output?

A. Plan
B. Do
C. Check
D. Act

Answer

A. Plan

Explanation

Plan – Establish the objectives and processes necessary to deliver results in accordance with the expected output (the target or goals). By establishing output expectations, the completeness and accuracy of the spec is also a part of the targeted improvement. When possible start on a small scale to test possible effects.

For your exam you should know the information below:
PDCA (plan-do-check-act or plan-do-check-adjust) is an iterative four-step management method used in business for the control and continuous improvement of processes and products. It is also known as the Deming circle/cycle/wheel, Stewart cycle, control circle/cycle, or plan-do-study-act (PDSA). Another version of this PDCA cycle is OPDCA. The added “O” stands for observation or as some versions say “Grasp the current condition.”

The steps in each successive PDCA cycle are:

PDCA cycle

PLAN – Establish the objectives and processes necessary to deliver results in accordance with the expected output (the target or goals). By establishing output expectations, the completeness and accuracy of the spec is also a part of the targeted improvement. When possible start on a small scale to test possible effects.

DO – Implement the plan, execute the process, make the product. Collect data for charting and analysis in the following “CHECK” and “ACT” steps.

CHECK – Study the actual results (measured and collected in “DO” above) and compare against the expected results (targets or goals from the “PLAN”) to ascertain any differences. Look for deviation in implementation from the plan and also look for the appropriateness and completeness of the plan to enable the execution, i.e., “Do”. Charting data can make this much easier to see trends over several PDCA cycles and in order to convert the collected data into information. Information is what you need for the next step “ACT”.

ACT – Request corrective actions on significant differences between actual and planned results. Analyze the differences to determine their root causes. Determine where to apply changes that will include improvement of the process or product. When a pass through these four steps does not result in the need to improve, the scope to which PDCA is applied may be refined to plan and improve with more detail in the next iteration of the cycle, or attention needs to be placed in a different stage of the process.

The following answers are incorrect:
DO – Implement the plan, execute the process, make the product. Collect data for charting and analysis in the following “CHECK” and “ACT” steps.
CHECK – Study the actual results (measured and collected in “DO” above) and compare against the expected results (targets or goals from the “PLAN”) to ascertain any differences.
ACT -Request corrective actions on significant differences between actual and planned results. Analyze the differences to determine their root causes. Determine where to apply changes that will include improvement of the process or product.

CISA Question 3089

Question

Which of the following cloud deployment model is formed by the composition of two or more cloud deployment mode?

A. Private Cloud
B. Community Cloud
C. Public Cloud
D. Hybrid Cloud

Answer

D. Hybrid Cloud

Explanation

In Hybrid cloud, the cloud infrastructure is a composition of two or more distinct cloud infrastructures (private, community, or public) that remain unique entities, but are bound together by standardized or proprietary technology that enables data and application portability (e.g., cloud bursting for load balancing between clouds)

For your exam you should know below information about Cloud Computing deployment models:
Private cloud – The cloud infrastructure is provisioned for exclusive use by a single organization comprising multiple consumers (e.g., business units). It may be owned, managed, and operated by the organization, a third party, or some combination of them, and it may exist on or off premises.

Private Cloud

Community Cloud – The cloud infrastructure is provisioned for exclusive use by a specific community of consumers from organizations that have shared concerns (e.g., mission, security requirements, policy, and compliance considerations). It may be owned, managed, and operated by one or more of the organizations in the community, a third party, or some combination of them, and it may exist on or off premises.

Community Cloud

Public Cloud – The cloud infrastructure is provisioned for open use by the general public. It may be owned, managed, and operated by a business, academic, or government organization, or some combination of them. It exists on the premises of the cloud provider.

Public Cloud

Hybrid cloud – The cloud infrastructure is a composition of two or more distinct cloud infrastructures (private, community, or public) that remain unique entities, but are bound together by standardized or proprietary technology that enables data and application portability (e.g., cloud bursting for load balancing between clouds) hybrid cloud

Hybrid Cloud

The following answers are incorrect:
Private cloud – The cloud infrastructure is provisioned for exclusive use by a single organization comprising multiple consumers (e.g., business units). It may be owned, managed, and operated by the organization, a third party, or some combination of them, and it may exist on or off premises.
Community cloud – The cloud infrastructure is provisioned for exclusive use by a specific community of consumers from organizations that have shared concerns (e.g., mission, security requirements, policy, and compliance considerations). It may be owned, managed, and operated by one or more of the organizations in the community, a third party, or some combination of them, and it may exist on or off premises.
Public cloud – The cloud infrastructure is provisioned for open use by the general public. It may be owned, managed, and operated by a business, academic, or government organization, or some combination of them. It exists on the premises of the cloud provider.

CISA Question 3090

Question

Which of the following cloud deployment model is provisioned for open use by the general public?

A. Private Cloud
B. Community Cloud
C. Public Cloud
D. Hybrid Cloud

Answer

C. Public Cloud

Explanation

In Public cloud, the cloud infrastructure is provisioned for open use by the general public. It may be owned, managed, and operated by a business, academic, or government organization, or some combination of them. It exists on the premises of the cloud provider.

For your exam you should know below information about Cloud Computing deployment models:
Private cloud – The cloud infrastructure is provisioned for exclusive use by a single organization comprising multiple consumers (e.g., business units). It may be owned, managed, and operated by the organization, a third party, or some combination of them, and it may exist on or off premises.

Private Cloud

Community Cloud – The cloud infrastructure is provisioned for exclusive use by a specific community of consumers from organizations that have shared concerns (e.g., mission, security requirements, policy, and compliance considerations). It may be owned, managed, and operated by one or more of the organizations in the community, a third party, or some combination of them, and it may exist on or off premises.

Community Cloud

Public Cloud – The cloud infrastructure is provisioned for open use by the general public. It may be owned, managed, and operated by a business, academic, or government organization, or some combination of them. It exists on the premises of the cloud provider.

Public Cloud

Hybrid cloud – The cloud infrastructure is a composition of two or more distinct cloud infrastructures (private, community, or public) that remain unique entities, but are bound together by standardized or proprietary technology that enables data and application portability (e.g., cloud bursting for load balancing between clouds) hybrid cloud

Hybrid CloudThe following answers are incorrect:

Private cloud – The cloud infrastructure is provisioned for exclusive use by a single organization comprising multiple consumers (e.g., business units). It may be owned, managed, and operated by the organization, a third party, or some combination of them, and it may exist on or off premises.
Community cloud – The cloud infrastructure is provisioned for exclusive use by a specific community of consumers from organizations that have shared concerns (e.g., mission, security requirements, policy, and compliance considerations). It may be owned, managed, and operated by one or more of the organizations in the community, a third party, or some combination of them, and it may exist on or off premises.
Hybrid cloud – The cloud infrastructure is a composition of two or more distinct cloud infrastructures (private, community, or public) that remain unique entities, but are bound together by standardized or proprietary technology that enables data and application portability (e.g., cloud bursting for load balancing between clouds)

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