Skip to Content

ISACA CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor Exam Questions and Answers – 22

The latest ISACA CISA (Certified Information Systems Auditor) certification actual real practice exam question and answer (Q&A) dumps are available free, which are helpful for you to pass the ISACA CISA exam and earn ISACA CISA certification.

ISACA Certified Information Systems Auditor (CISA) Exam Questions and Answers

CISA Question 2301

Question

Which of the following technique is used for speeding up network traffic flow and making it easier to manage?

A. Point-to-point protocol
B. X.25
C. MPLS
D. ISDN

Answer

C. MPLS

Explanation

Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a standards-approved technology for speeding up network traffic flow and making it easier to manage.
MPLS involves setting up a specific path for a given sequence of packets, identified by a label put in each packet, thus saving the time needed for a router to look up the address to the next node to forward the packet to. MPLS is called multiprotocol because it works with the Internet Protocol (IP), Asynchronous Transport Mode (ATM), and frame relay network protocols. With reference to the standard model for a network (the Open Systems Interconnection, or OSI model), MPLS allows most packets to be forwarded at the Layer 2 (switching) level rather than at the Layer 3 (routing) level. In addition to moving traffic faster overall, MPLS makes it easy to manage a network for quality of service (QoS). For these reasons, the technique is expected to be readily adopted as networks begin to carry more and different mixtures of traffic.

For your exam you should know below information about WAN Technologies:

Point-to-point protocol – PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) is a protocol for communication between two computers using a serial interface, typically a personal computer connected by phone line to a server. For example, your Internet server provider may provide you with a PPP connection so that the provider’s server can respond to your requests, pass them on to the Internet, and forward your requested Internet responses back to you. PPP uses the Internet protocol (IP) (and is designed to handle others). It is sometimes considered a member of the TCP/IP suite of protocols. Relative to the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model, PPP provides layer 2 (data-link layer) service. Essentially, it packages your computer’s TCP/IP packets and forwards them to the server where they can actually be put on the Internet.
PPP is a full-duplex protocol that can be used on various physical media, including twisted pair or fiber optic lines or satellite transmission. It uses a variation of High Speed Data Link Control (HDLC) for packet encapsulation.
PPP is usually preferred over the earlier de facto standard Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) because it can handle synchronous as well as asynchronous communication. PPP can share a line with other users and it has error detection that SLIP lacks. Where a choice is possible, PPP is preferred.

PPP Access Protocol

X.25 – X.25 is an ITU-T standard protocol suite for packet switched wide area network (WAN) communication.
X.25 is a packet switching technology which uses carrier switch to provide connectivity for many different networks.
Subscribers are charged based on amount of bandwidth they use. Data are divided into 128 bytes and encapsulated in High Level Data Link Control (HDLC).
X.25 works at network and data link layer of an OSI model.

X.25 Network

Frame Relay –

Works on a packet switching –
Operates at data link layer of an OSI model
Companies that pay more to ensure that a higher level of bandwidth will always be available, pay a committed information rate or CIR.
Two main types of equipment’s are used in Frame Relay:

1. Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) – Usually a customer owned device that provides a connectivity between company’s own network and the frame relay’s network.

2. Data Circuit Terminal Equipment (DCE) – Service provider device that does the actual data transmission and switching in the frame relay cloud.

The Frame relay cloud is the collection of DCE that provides that provides switching and data communication functionality. Frame relay is any to any service.

Typical Frame Relay Network

Frame Relay –
Integrated Service Digital Network
Enables data, voice and other types of traffic to travel over a medium in a digital manner previously used only for analog voice transmission.
Same copper telephone wire is used.

Integrated Service Digital Network

Provide digital point-to-point circuit switching medium.

ISDN –
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)

Uses Cell switching method –
High speed network technology used for LAN, MAN and WAN
Like a frame relay it is connection oriented technology which creates and uses fixed channel
Data are segmented into fixed size cell of 53 bytes
Some companies have replaces FDDI back-end with ATM

Asynchronous Transfer Mode

Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) – Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a standards-approved technology for speeding up network traffic flow and making it easier to manage.
MPLS involves setting up a specific path for a given sequence of packets, identified by a label put in each packet, thus saving the time needed for a router to look up the address to the next node to forward the packet to. MPLS is called multiprotocol because it works with the Internet Protocol (IP), Asynchronous Transport Mode (ATM), and frame relay network protocols. With reference to the standard model for a network (the Open Systems Interconnection, or OSI model), MPLS allows most packets to be forwarded at the Layer 2 (switching) level rather than at the Layer 3 (routing) level. In addition to moving traffic faster overall, MPLS makes it easy to manage a network for quality of service (QoS). For these reasons, the technique is expected to be readily adopted as networks begin to carry more and different mixtures of traffic.

Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS)

The following answers are incorrect:
X.25 – X.25 is an ITU-T standard protocol suite for packet switched wide area network (WAN) communication.X.25 is a packet switching technology which uses carrier switch to provide connectivity for many different networks.
Point-to-point protocol – PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) is a protocol for communication between two computers using a serial interface, typically a personal computer connected by phone line to a server.
ISDN -Enables data, voice and other types of traffic to travel over a medium in a digital manner previously used only for analog voice transmission.

CISA Question 2302

Question

Which of the following statement INCORRECTLY describes Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) technique?

A. ATM uses cell switching method
B. ATM is high speed network technology used for LAN, MAN and WAN
C. ATM works at session layer of an OSI model
D. Data are segmented into fixed size cell of 53 bytes

Answer

C. ATM works at session layer of an OSI model

Explanation

The keyword INCORRECTLY is used within the question. You need to find out a statement which was incorrectly describe Asynchronous Transfer Mode.ATM operates at data link layer of an OSI model
For your exam you should know below information about WAN Technologies:

Point-to-point protocol – PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) is a protocol for communication between two computers using a serial interface, typically a personal computer connected by phone line to a server. For example, your Internet server provider may provide you with a PPP connection so that the provider’s server can respond to your requests, pass them on to the Internet, and forward your requested Internet responses back to you. PPP uses the Internet protocol (IP) (and is designed to handle others). It is sometimes considered a member of the TCP/IP suite of protocols. Relative to the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model, PPP provides layer 2 (data-link layer) service. Essentially, it packages your computer’s TCP/IP packets and forwards them to the server where they can actually be put on the Internet.
PPP is a full-duplex protocol that can be used on various physical media, including twisted pair or fiber optic lines or satellite transmission. It uses a variation of High Speed Data Link Control (HDLC) for packet encapsulation.
PPP is usually preferred over the earlier de facto standard Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) because it can handle synchronous as well as asynchronous communication. PPP can share a line with other users and it has error detection that SLIP lacks. Where a choice is possible, PPP is preferred.

PPP Access Protocol

X.25 – X.25 is an ITU-T standard protocol suite for packet switched wide area network (WAN) communication.
X.25 is a packet switching technology which uses carrier switch to provide connectivity for many different networks.
Subscribers are charged based on amount of bandwidth they use. Data are divided into 128 bytes and encapsulated in High Level Data Link Control (HDLC).
X.25 works at network and data link layer of an OSI model.

X.25 Network

Frame Relay –

Works on a packet switching –
Operates at data link layer of an OSI model
Companies that pay more to ensure that a higher level of bandwidth will always be available, pay a committed information rate or CIR.
Two main types of equipment’s are used in Frame Relay:

1. Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) – Usually a customer owned device that provides a connectivity between company’s own network and the frame relay’s network.

2. Data Circuit Terminal Equipment (DCE) – Service provider device that does the actual data transmission and switching in the frame relay cloud.

The Frame relay cloud is the collection of DCE that provides that provides switching and data communication functionality. Frame relay is any to any service.

Typical Frame Relay Network

Frame Relay –
Integrated Service Digital Network
Enables data, voice and other types of traffic to travel over a medium in a digital manner previously used only for analog voice transmission.
Same copper telephone wire is used.

Integrated Service Digital Network

Provide digital point-to-point circuit switching medium.

ISDN –
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)

Uses Cell switching method –
High speed network technology used for LAN, MAN and WAN
Like a frame relay it is connection oriented technology which creates and uses fixed channel
Data are segmented into fixed size cell of 53 bytes
Some companies have replaces FDDI back-end with ATM

Asynchronous Transfer Mode

Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) – Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a standards-approved technology for speeding up network traffic flow and making it easier to manage.
MPLS involves setting up a specific path for a given sequence of packets, identified by a label put in each packet, thus saving the time needed for a router to look up the address to the next node to forward the packet to. MPLS is called multiprotocol because it works with the Internet Protocol (IP), Asynchronous Transport Mode (ATM), and frame relay network protocols. With reference to the standard model for a network (the Open Systems Interconnection, or OSI model), MPLS allows most packets to be forwarded at the Layer 2 (switching) level rather than at the Layer 3 (routing) level. In addition to moving traffic faster overall, MPLS makes it easy to manage a network for quality of service (QoS). For these reasons, the technique is expected to be readily adopted as networks begin to carry more and different mixtures of traffic.

Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS)

The following answers are incorrect:
The other options presented correctly describes Asynchronous Transfer Mode.

CISA Question 2303

Question

Which of the following device in Frame Relay WAN technique is a service provider device that does the actual data transmission and switching in the frame relay cloud?

A. DTE
B. DCE
C. DME
D. DLE

Answer

B. DCE

Explanation

Data Circuit Terminal Equipment (DCE) is a service provider device that does the actual data transmission and switching in the frame relay cloud.

For your exam you should know below information about WAN Technologies:

Point-to-point protocol – PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) is a protocol for communication between two computers using a serial interface, typically a personal computer connected by phone line to a server. For example, your Internet server provider may provide you with a PPP connection so that the provider’s server can respond to your requests, pass them on to the Internet, and forward your requested Internet responses back to you. PPP uses the Internet protocol (IP) (and is designed to handle others). It is sometimes considered a member of the TCP/IP suite of protocols. Relative to the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model, PPP provides layer 2 (data-link layer) service. Essentially, it packages your computer’s TCP/IP packets and forwards them to the server where they can actually be put on the Internet.
PPP is a full-duplex protocol that can be used on various physical media, including twisted pair or fiber optic lines or satellite transmission. It uses a variation of High Speed Data Link Control (HDLC) for packet encapsulation.
PPP is usually preferred over the earlier de facto standard Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) because it can handle synchronous as well as asynchronous communication. PPP can share a line with other users and it has error detection that SLIP lacks. Where a choice is possible, PPP is preferred.

PPP Access Protocol

X.25 – X.25 is an ITU-T standard protocol suite for packet switched wide area network (WAN) communication.
X.25 is a packet switching technology which uses carrier switch to provide connectivity for many different networks.
Subscribers are charged based on amount of bandwidth they use. Data are divided into 128 bytes and encapsulated in High Level Data Link Control (HDLC).
X.25 works at network and data link layer of an OSI model.

X.25 Network

Frame Relay –

Works on a packet switching –
Operates at data link layer of an OSI model
Companies that pay more to ensure that a higher level of bandwidth will always be available, pay a committed information rate or CIR.
Two main types of equipment’s are used in Frame Relay:

1. Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) – Usually a customer owned device that provides a connectivity between company’s own network and the frame relay’s network.

2. Data Circuit Terminal Equipment (DCE) – Service provider device that does the actual data transmission and switching in the frame relay cloud.

The Frame relay cloud is the collection of DCE that provides that provides switching and data communication functionality. Frame relay is any to any service.

Typical Frame Relay Network

Frame Relay –
Integrated Service Digital Network
Enables data, voice and other types of traffic to travel over a medium in a digital manner previously used only for analog voice transmission.
Same copper telephone wire is used.

Integrated Service Digital Network

Provide digital point-to-point circuit switching medium.

ISDN –
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)

Uses Cell switching method –
High speed network technology used for LAN, MAN and WAN
Like a frame relay it is connection oriented technology which creates and uses fixed channel
Data are segmented into fixed size cell of 53 bytes
Some companies have replaces FDDI back-end with ATM

Asynchronous Transfer Mode

Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) – Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a standards-approved technology for speeding up network traffic flow and making it easier to manage.
MPLS involves setting up a specific path for a given sequence of packets, identified by a label put in each packet, thus saving the time needed for a router to look up the address to the next node to forward the packet to. MPLS is called multiprotocol because it works with the Internet Protocol (IP), Asynchronous Transport Mode (ATM), and frame relay network protocols. With reference to the standard model for a network (the Open Systems Interconnection, or OSI model), MPLS allows most packets to be forwarded at the Layer 2 (switching) level rather than at the Layer 3 (routing) level. In addition to moving traffic faster overall, MPLS makes it easy to manage a network for quality of service (QoS). For these reasons, the technique is expected to be readily adopted as networks begin to carry more and different mixtures of traffic.

Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS)

The following answers are incorrect:
DTE – Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) is usually a customer owned device that provides a connectivity between company’s own network and the frame relay’s network.
DME – Not a valid frame relay technique
DLE – Not a valid frame relay technique

CISA Question 2304

Question

Which of the following device in Frame Relay WAN technique is generally customer owned device that provides a connectivity between company’s own network and the frame relays network?

A. DTE
B. DCE
C. DME
D. DLE

Answer

A. DTE

Explanation

Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) – Usually a customer owned device that provides connectivity between company’s own network and the frame relay’s network.

For your exam you should know below information about WAN Technologies:

Point-to-point protocol – PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) is a protocol for communication between two computers using a serial interface, typically a personal computer connected by phone line to a server. For example, your Internet server provider may provide you with a PPP connection so that the provider’s server can respond to your requests, pass them on to the Internet, and forward your requested Internet responses back to you. PPP uses the Internet protocol (IP) (and is designed to handle others). It is sometimes considered a member of the TCP/IP suite of protocols. Relative to the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model, PPP provides layer 2 (data-link layer) service. Essentially, it packages your computer’s TCP/IP packets and forwards them to the server where they can actually be put on the Internet.
PPP is a full-duplex protocol that can be used on various physical media, including twisted pair or fiber optic lines or satellite transmission. It uses a variation of High Speed Data Link Control (HDLC) for packet encapsulation.
PPP is usually preferred over the earlier de facto standard Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) because it can handle synchronous as well as asynchronous communication. PPP can share a line with other users and it has error detection that SLIP lacks. Where a choice is possible, PPP is preferred.

PPP Access Protocol

X.25 – X.25 is an ITU-T standard protocol suite for packet switched wide area network (WAN) communication.
X.25 is a packet switching technology which uses carrier switch to provide connectivity for many different networks.
Subscribers are charged based on amount of bandwidth they use. Data are divided into 128 bytes and encapsulated in High Level Data Link Control (HDLC).
X.25 works at network and data link layer of an OSI model.

X.25 Network

Frame Relay –

Works on a packet switching –
Operates at data link layer of an OSI model
Companies that pay more to ensure that a higher level of bandwidth will always be available, pay a committed information rate or CIR.
Two main types of equipment’s are used in Frame Relay:

1. Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) – Usually a customer owned device that provides a connectivity between company’s own network and the frame relay’s network.

2. Data Circuit Terminal Equipment (DCE) – Service provider device that does the actual data transmission and switching in the frame relay cloud.

The Frame relay cloud is the collection of DCE that provides that provides switching and data communication functionality. Frame relay is any to any service.

Typical Frame Relay Network

Frame Relay –
Integrated Service Digital Network
Enables data, voice and other types of traffic to travel over a medium in a digital manner previously used only for analog voice transmission.
Same copper telephone wire is used.

Integrated Service Digital Network

Provide digital point-to-point circuit switching medium.

ISDN –
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)

Uses Cell switching method –
High speed network technology used for LAN, MAN and WAN
Like a frame relay it is connection oriented technology which creates and uses fixed channel
Data are segmented into fixed size cell of 53 bytes
Some companies have replaces FDDI back-end with ATM

Asynchronous Transfer Mode

Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) – Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a standards-approved technology for speeding up network traffic flow and making it easier to manage.
MPLS involves setting up a specific path for a given sequence of packets, identified by a label put in each packet, thus saving the time needed for a router to look up the address to the next node to forward the packet to. MPLS is called multiprotocol because it works with the Internet Protocol (IP), Asynchronous Transport Mode (ATM), and frame relay network protocols. With reference to the standard model for a network (the Open Systems Interconnection, or OSI model), MPLS allows most packets to be forwarded at the Layer 2 (switching) level rather than at the Layer 3 (routing) level. In addition to moving traffic faster overall, MPLS makes it easy to manage a network for quality of service (QoS). For these reasons, the technique is expected to be readily adopted as networks begin to carry more and different mixtures of traffic.

Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS)

The following answers are incorrect:
DCE – Data Circuit Terminal Equipment (DCE) is a service provider device that does the actual data transmission and switching in the frame relay cloud.
DME – Not a valid frame relay technique
DLE – Not a valid frame relay technique

CISA Question 2305

Question

Which of the following is a ITU-T standard protocol suite for packet switched wide area network communication?

A. Point-to-point protocol
B. X.25
C. Frame Relay
D. ISDN

Answer

B. X.25

Explanation

X.25 is an ITU-T standard protocol suite for packet switched wide area network (WAN) communication.X.25 is a packet switching technology which uses carrier switch to provide connectivity for many different networks.

For your exam you should know below information about WAN Technologies:

Point-to-point protocol – PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) is a protocol for communication between two computers using a serial interface, typically a personal computer connected by phone line to a server. For example, your Internet server provider may provide you with a PPP connection so that the provider’s server can respond to your requests, pass them on to the Internet, and forward your requested Internet responses back to you. PPP uses the Internet protocol (IP) (and is designed to handle others). It is sometimes considered a member of the TCP/IP suite of protocols. Relative to the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model, PPP provides layer 2 (data-link layer) service. Essentially, it packages your computer’s TCP/IP packets and forwards them to the server where they can actually be put on the Internet.
PPP is a full-duplex protocol that can be used on various physical media, including twisted pair or fiber optic lines or satellite transmission. It uses a variation of High Speed Data Link Control (HDLC) for packet encapsulation.
PPP is usually preferred over the earlier de facto standard Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) because it can handle synchronous as well as asynchronous communication. PPP can share a line with other users and it has error detection that SLIP lacks. Where a choice is possible, PPP is preferred.

PPP Access Protocol

X.25 – X.25 is an ITU-T standard protocol suite for packet switched wide area network (WAN) communication.
X.25 is a packet switching technology which uses carrier switch to provide connectivity for many different networks.
Subscribers are charged based on amount of bandwidth they use. Data are divided into 128 bytes and encapsulated in High Level Data Link Control (HDLC).
X.25 works at network and data link layer of an OSI model.

X.25 Network

Frame Relay –

Works on a packet switching –
Operates at data link layer of an OSI model
Companies that pay more to ensure that a higher level of bandwidth will always be available, pay a committed information rate or CIR.
Two main types of equipment’s are used in Frame Relay:

1. Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) – Usually a customer owned device that provides a connectivity between company’s own network and the frame relay’s network.

2. Data Circuit Terminal Equipment (DCE) – Service provider device that does the actual data transmission and switching in the frame relay cloud.

The Frame relay cloud is the collection of DCE that provides that provides switching and data communication functionality. Frame relay is any to any service.

Typical Frame Relay Network

Frame Relay –
Integrated Service Digital Network
Enables data, voice and other types of traffic to travel over a medium in a digital manner previously used only for analog voice transmission.
Same copper telephone wire is used.

Integrated Service Digital Network

Provide digital point-to-point circuit switching medium.

ISDN –
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)

Uses Cell switching method –
High speed network technology used for LAN, MAN and WAN
Like a frame relay it is connection oriented technology which creates and uses fixed channel
Data are segmented into fixed size cell of 53 bytes
Some companies have replaces FDDI back-end with ATM

Asynchronous Transfer Mode

Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) – Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a standards-approved technology for speeding up network traffic flow and making it easier to manage.
MPLS involves setting up a specific path for a given sequence of packets, identified by a label put in each packet, thus saving the time needed for a router to look up the address to the next node to forward the packet to. MPLS is called multiprotocol because it works with the Internet Protocol (IP), Asynchronous Transport Mode (ATM), and frame relay network protocols. With reference to the standard model for a network (the Open Systems Interconnection, or OSI model), MPLS allows most packets to be forwarded at the Layer 2 (switching) level rather than at the Layer 3 (routing) level. In addition to moving traffic faster overall, MPLS makes it easy to manage a network for quality of service (QoS). For these reasons, the technique is expected to be readily adopted as networks begin to carry more and different mixtures of traffic.

Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS)

The following answers are incorrect:
Point-to-point protocol – PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) is a protocol for communication between two computers using a serial interface, typically a personal computer connected by phone line to a server.
Frame Relay – The Frame relay cloud is the collection of DCE that provides that provides switching and data communication functionality. Frame relay is any to any service.
ISDN -Enables data, voice and other types of traffic to travel over a medium in a digital manner previously used only for analog voice transmission. Same copper telephone wire is used. Provide digital point-to-point circuit switching medium.

CISA Question 2306

Question

Which of the following protocol uses serial interface for communication between two computers in WAN technology?

A. Point-to-point protocol
B. X.25
C. Frame Relay
D. ISDN

Answer

A. Point-to-point protocol

Explanation

PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) is a protocol for communication between two computers using a serial interface, typically a personal computer using a MODEM connected by phone line to a server.

For your exam you should know below information about WAN Technologies:

Point-to-point protocol – PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) is a protocol for communication between two computers using a serial interface, typically a personal computer connected by phone line to a server. For example, your Internet server provider may provide you with a PPP connection so that the provider’s server can respond to your requests, pass them on to the Internet, and forward your requested Internet responses back to you. PPP uses the Internet protocol (IP) (and is designed to handle others). It is sometimes considered a member of the TCP/IP suite of protocols. Relative to the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model, PPP provides layer 2 (data-link layer) service. Essentially, it packages your computer’s TCP/IP packets and forwards them to the server where they can actually be put on the Internet.
PPP is a full-duplex protocol that can be used on various physical media, including twisted pair or fiber optic lines or satellite transmission. It uses a variation of High Speed Data Link Control (HDLC) for packet encapsulation.
PPP is usually preferred over the earlier de facto standard Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) because it can handle synchronous as well as asynchronous communication. PPP can share a line with other users and it has error detection that SLIP lacks. Where a choice is possible, PPP is preferred.

PPP Access Protocol

X.25 – X.25 is an ITU-T standard protocol suite for packet switched wide area network (WAN) communication.
X.25 is a packet switching technology which uses carrier switch to provide connectivity for many different networks.
Subscribers are charged based on amount of bandwidth they use. Data are divided into 128 bytes and encapsulated in High Level Data Link Control (HDLC).
X.25 works at network and data link layer of an OSI model.

X.25 Network

Frame Relay –

Works on a packet switching –
Operates at data link layer of an OSI model
Companies that pay more to ensure that a higher level of bandwidth will always be available, pay a committed information rate or CIR.
Two main types of equipment’s are used in Frame Relay:

1. Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) – Usually a customer owned device that provides a connectivity between company’s own network and the frame relay’s network.

2. Data Circuit Terminal Equipment (DCE) – Service provider device that does the actual data transmission and switching in the frame relay cloud.

The Frame relay cloud is the collection of DCE that provides that provides switching and data communication functionality. Frame relay is any to any service.

Typical Frame Relay Network

Frame Relay –
Integrated Service Digital Network
Enables data, voice and other types of traffic to travel over a medium in a digital manner previously used only for analog voice transmission.
Same copper telephone wire is used.

Integrated Service Digital Network

Provide digital point-to-point circuit switching medium.

ISDN –
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)

Uses Cell switching method –
High speed network technology used for LAN, MAN and WAN
Like a frame relay it is connection oriented technology which creates and uses fixed channel
Data are segmented into fixed size cell of 53 bytes
Some companies have replaces FDDI back-end with ATM

Asynchronous Transfer Mode

Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) – Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a standards-approved technology for speeding up network traffic flow and making it easier to manage.
MPLS involves setting up a specific path for a given sequence of packets, identified by a label put in each packet, thus saving the time needed for a router to look up the address to the next node to forward the packet to. MPLS is called multiprotocol because it works with the Internet Protocol (IP), Asynchronous Transport Mode (ATM), and frame relay network protocols. With reference to the standard model for a network (the Open Systems Interconnection, or OSI model), MPLS allows most packets to be forwarded at the Layer 2 (switching) level rather than at the Layer 3 (routing) level. In addition to moving traffic faster overall, MPLS makes it easy to manage a network for quality of service (QoS). For these reasons, the technique is expected to be readily adopted as networks begin to carry more and different mixtures of traffic.

Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS)

The following answers are incorrect:
X.25 – X.25 is an ITU-T standard protocol suite for packet switched wide area network (WAN) communication.X.25 is a packet switching technology which uses carrier switch to provide connectivity for many different networks.
Frame Relay – The Frame relay cloud is the collection of DCE that provides that provides switching and data communication functionality. Frame relay is any to any service.
ISDN -Enables data, voice and other types of traffic to travel over a medium in a digital manner previously used only for analog voice transmission. Same copper telephone wire is used. Provide digital point-to-point circuit switching medium.

CISA Question 2307

Question

Which of the following statement INCORRECTLY describes packet switching technique?

A. Packet uses many different dynamic paths to get the same destination
B. Traffic is usually burst in nature
C. Fixed delays to reach each packet to destination
D. Usually carries data-oriented data

Answer

C. Fixed delays to reach each packet to destination

Explanation

The word INCORRECTLY is the keyword used in the question. You need to find out a statement which is not valid about packet switching. As in the network switching, packet traverse different path, there will be always variable delay for each packet to reach to destination.

For your exam you should know below information about WAN message transmission technique:

Message Switching – Message switching is a network switching technique in which data is routed in its entirety from the source node to the destination node, one hope at a time. During message routing, every intermediate switch in the network stores the whole message. If the entire network’s resources are engaged or the network becomes blocked, the message-switched network stores and delays the message until ample resources become available for effective transmission of the message.

Message switched data network

Packet Switching – Refers to protocols in which messages are divided into packets before they are sent. Each packet is then transmitted individually and can even follow different routes to its destination. Once all the packets forming a message arrive at the destination, they are recompiled into the original message.

Packet Switching

Circuit Switching – Circuit switching is a methodology of implementing a telecommunications network in which two network nodes establish a dedicated communications channel (circuit) through the network before the nodes may communicate.
The circuit guarantees the full bandwidth of the channel and remains connected for the duration of the session. The circuit functions as if the nodes were physically connected similar to an electrical circuit.
The defining example of a circuit-switched network is the early analog telephone network. When a call is made from one telephone to another, switches within the telephone exchanges create a continuous wire circuit between the two telephones, for as long as the call lasts.
In circuit switching, the bit delay is constant during a connection, as opposed to packet switching, where packet queues may cause varying and potentially indefinitely long packet transfer delays. No circuit can be degraded by competing users because it is protected from use by other callers until the circuit is released and a new connection is set up. Even if no actual communication is taking place, the channel remains reserved and protected from competing users.

Circuit Switching

See a table below comparing Circuit Switched versus Packet Switched networks:

Difference between Circuit and packet switching

Virtual circuit – In telecommunications and computer networks, a virtual circuit (VC), synonymous with virtual connection and virtual channel, is a connection oriented communication service that is delivered by means of packet mode communication.
After a connection or virtual circuit is established between two nodes or application processes, a bit stream or byte stream may be delivered between the nodes; a virtual circuit protocol allows higher level protocols to avoid dealing with the division of data into segments, packets, or frames.
Virtual circuit communication resembles circuit switching, since both are connection oriented, meaning that in both cases data is delivered in correct order, and signaling overhead is required during a connection establishment phase. However, circuit switching provides constant bit rate and latency, while these may vary in a virtual circuit service due to factors such as: varying packet queue lengths in the network nodes, varying bit rate generated by the application, varying load from other users sharing the same network resources by means of statistical multiplexing, etc.

The following were incorrect answers:
The other options presented correctly describes about packet switching.

CISA Question 2308

Question

Which of the following statement INCORRECTLY describes circuit switching technique?

A. Packet uses many different dynamic paths to get the same destination
B. Connection oriented virtual links
C. Fixed delays
D. Traffic travels in a predictable and constant manner

Answer

A. Packet uses many different dynamic paths to get the same destination

Explanation

The word INCORRECTLY is the keyword used in the question. You need to find out a statement which is not valid about circuit switching.

For your exam you should know below information about WAN message transmission technique:

Message Switching – Message switching is a network switching technique in which data is routed in its entirety from the source node to the destination node, one hope at a time. During message routing, every intermediate switch in the network stores the whole message. If the entire network’s resources are engaged or the network becomes blocked, the message-switched network stores and delays the message until ample resources become available for effective transmission of the message.

Message switched data network

Packet Switching – Refers to protocols in which messages are divided into packets before they are sent. Each packet is then transmitted individually and can even follow different routes to its destination. Once all the packets forming a message arrive at the destination, they are recompiled into the original message.

Packet Switching

Circuit Switching – Circuit switching is a methodology of implementing a telecommunications network in which two network nodes establish a dedicated communications channel (circuit) through the network before the nodes may communicate.
The circuit guarantees the full bandwidth of the channel and remains connected for the duration of the session. The circuit functions as if the nodes were physically connected similar to an electrical circuit.
The defining example of a circuit-switched network is the early analog telephone network. When a call is made from one telephone to another, switches within the telephone exchanges create a continuous wire circuit between the two telephones, for as long as the call lasts.
In circuit switching, the bit delay is constant during a connection, as opposed to packet switching, where packet queues may cause varying and potentially indefinitely long packet transfer delays. No circuit can be degraded by competing users because it is protected from use by other callers until the circuit is released and a new connection is set up. Even if no actual communication is taking place, the channel remains reserved and protected from competing users.

Circuit Switching

See a table below comparing Circuit Switched versus Packet Switched networks:

Difference between Circuit and packet switching

Virtual circuit – In telecommunications and computer networks, a virtual circuit (VC), synonymous with virtual connection and virtual channel, is a connection oriented communication service that is delivered by means of packet mode communication.
After a connection or virtual circuit is established between two nodes or application processes, a bit stream or byte stream may be delivered between the nodes; a virtual circuit protocol allows higher level protocols to avoid dealing with the division of data into segments, packets, or frames.
Virtual circuit communication resembles circuit switching, since both are connection oriented, meaning that in both cases data is delivered in correct order, and signaling overhead is required during a connection establishment phase. However, circuit switching provides constant bit rate and latency, while these may vary in a virtual circuit service due to factors such as: varying packet queue lengths in the network nodes, varying bit rate generated by the application, varying load from other users sharing the same network resources by means of statistical multiplexing, etc.

The following were incorrect answers:
The other options presented correctly describes about circuit switching.

CISA Question 2309

Question

In which of the following WAN message transmission technique does two network nodes establish a dedicated communications channel through the network before the nodes may communicate?

A. Message Switching
B. Packet switching
C. Circuit switching
D. Virtual Circuits

Answer

C. Circuit switching

Explanation

For your exam you should know below information about WAN message transmission technique:

Message Switching – Message switching is a network switching technique in which data is routed in its entirety from the source node to the destination node, one hope at a time. During message routing, every intermediate switch in the network stores the whole message. If the entire network’s resources are engaged or the network becomes blocked, the message-switched network stores and delays the message until ample resources become available for effective transmission of the message.

Message switched data network

Packet Switching – Refers to protocols in which messages are divided into packets before they are sent. Each packet is then transmitted individually and can even follow different routes to its destination. Once all the packets forming a message arrive at the destination, they are recompiled into the original message.

Packet Switching

Circuit Switching – Circuit switching is a methodology of implementing a telecommunications network in which two network nodes establish a dedicated communications channel (circuit) through the network before the nodes may communicate.
The circuit guarantees the full bandwidth of the channel and remains connected for the duration of the session. The circuit functions as if the nodes were physically connected similar to an electrical circuit.
The defining example of a circuit-switched network is the early analog telephone network. When a call is made from one telephone to another, switches within the telephone exchanges create a continuous wire circuit between the two telephones, for as long as the call lasts.
In circuit switching, the bit delay is constant during a connection, as opposed to packet switching, where packet queues may cause varying and potentially indefinitely long packet transfer delays. No circuit can be degraded by competing users because it is protected from use by other callers until the circuit is released and a new connection is set up. Even if no actual communication is taking place, the channel remains reserved and protected from competing users.

Circuit Switching

See a table below comparing Circuit Switched versus Packet Switched networks:

Difference between Circuit and packet switching

Virtual circuit – In telecommunications and computer networks, a virtual circuit (VC), synonymous with virtual connection and virtual channel, is a connection oriented communication service that is delivered by means of packet mode communication.
After a connection or virtual circuit is established between two nodes or application processes, a bit stream or byte stream may be delivered between the nodes; a virtual circuit protocol allows higher level protocols to avoid dealing with the division of data into segments, packets, or frames.
Virtual circuit communication resembles circuit switching, since both are connection oriented, meaning that in both cases data is delivered in correct order, and signaling overhead is required during a connection establishment phase. However, circuit switching provides constant bit rate and latency, while these may vary in a virtual circuit service due to factors such as: varying packet queue lengths in the network nodes, varying bit rate generated by the application, varying load from other users sharing the same network resources by means of statistical multiplexing, etc.

The following were incorrect answers:
The other options presented are not valid choices.

CISA Question 2310

Question

In which of the following WAN message transmission technique messages are divided into packets before they are sent and each packet is then transmitted individually and can even follow different routes to its destination?

A. Message Switching
B. Packet switching
C. Circuit switching
D. Virtual Circuits

Answer

B. Packet switching

Explanation

For your exam you should know below information about WAN message transmission technique:

Message Switching – Message switching is a network switching technique in which data is routed in its entirety from the source node to the destination node, one hope at a time. During message routing, every intermediate switch in the network stores the whole message. If the entire network’s resources are engaged or the network becomes blocked, the message-switched network stores and delays the message until ample resources become available for effective transmission of the message.

Message switched data network

Packet Switching – Refers to protocols in which messages are divided into packets before they are sent. Each packet is then transmitted individually and can even follow different routes to its destination. Once all the packets forming a message arrive at the destination, they are recompiled into the original message.

Packet Switching

Circuit Switching – Circuit switching is a methodology of implementing a telecommunications network in which two network nodes establish a dedicated communications channel (circuit) through the network before the nodes may communicate.
The circuit guarantees the full bandwidth of the channel and remains connected for the duration of the session. The circuit functions as if the nodes were physically connected similar to an electrical circuit.
The defining example of a circuit-switched network is the early analog telephone network. When a call is made from one telephone to another, switches within the telephone exchanges create a continuous wire circuit between the two telephones, for as long as the call lasts.
In circuit switching, the bit delay is constant during a connection, as opposed to packet switching, where packet queues may cause varying and potentially indefinitely long packet transfer delays. No circuit can be degraded by competing users because it is protected from use by other callers until the circuit is released and a new connection is set up. Even if no actual communication is taking place, the channel remains reserved and protected from competing users.

Circuit Switching

See a table below comparing Circuit Switched versus Packet Switched networks:

Difference between Circuit and packet switching

Virtual circuit – In telecommunications and computer networks, a virtual circuit (VC), synonymous with virtual connection and virtual channel, is a connection oriented communication service that is delivered by means of packet mode communication.
After a connection or virtual circuit is established between two nodes or application processes, a bit stream or byte stream may be delivered between the nodes; a virtual circuit protocol allows higher level protocols to avoid dealing with the division of data into segments, packets, or frames.
Virtual circuit communication resembles circuit switching, since both are connection oriented, meaning that in both cases data is delivered in correct order, and signaling overhead is required during a connection establishment phase. However, circuit switching provides constant bit rate and latency, while these may vary in a virtual circuit service due to factors such as: varying packet queue lengths in the network nodes, varying bit rate generated by the application, varying load from other users sharing the same network resources by means of statistical multiplexing, etc.

The following were incorrect answers:
The other options presented are not valid choices.

Ads Blocker Image Powered by Code Help Pro

Ads Blocker Detected!!!

We have detected that you are using extensions to block ads. We need money to operate the site, and almost all of it comes from online advertising. Please support us by disabling these ads blocker.

Please disable ad blocker