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AWS Certified Solutions Architect – Associate SAA-C03 Exam Questions and Answers – Page 1

The latest AWS Certified Solutions Architect – Associate SAA-C03 certification actual real practice exam question and answer (Q&A) dumps are available free, which are helpful for you to pass the AWS Certified Solutions Architect – Associate SAA-C03 exam and earn AWS Certified Solutions Architect – Associate SAA-C03 certification.

Exam Question 21

A web application is deployed in the AWS Cloud. It consists of a two-tier architecture that includes a web layer and a database layer. The web server is vulnerable to cross-site scripting (XSS) attacks.

What should a solutions architect do to remediate the vulnerability?

A. Create a Classic Load Balancer. Put the web layer behind the load balancer and enable AWS WAF.
B. Create a Network Load Balancer. Put the web layer behind the load balancer and enable AWS WAF.
C. Create an Application Load Balancer. Put the web layer behind the load balancer and enable AWS WAF.
D. Create an Application Load Balancer. Put the web layer behind the load balancer and use AWS Shield Standard.

Correct Answer

C. Create an Application Load Balancer. Put the web layer behind the load balancer and enable AWS WAF.

Answer Description

Working with cross-site scripting match conditions: Attackers sometimes insert scripts into web requests in an effort to exploit vulnerabilities in web applications. You can create one or more cross-site scripting match conditions to identify the parts of web requests, such as the URI or the query string, that you want AWS WAF Classic to inspect for possible malicious scripts. Later in the process, when you create a web ACL, you specify whether to allow or block requests that appear to contain malicious scripts.
Web Application Firewall: You can now use AWS WAF to protect your web applications on your Application Load Balancers. AWS WAF is a web application firewall that helps protect your web applications from common web exploits that could affect application availability, compromise security, or consume excessive resources.

The AWS Web Application Firewall (WAF) is available on the Application Load Balancer (ALB). You can use AWS WAF directly on Application Load Balancers (both internal and external) in a VPC, to protect your websites and web services.

Attackers sometimes insert scripts into web requests in an effort to exploit vulnerabilities in web applications. You can create one or more cross-site scripting match conditions to identify the parts of web requests, such as the URI or the query string, that you want AWS WAF to inspect for possible malicious scripts.

CORRECT: “Create an Application Load Balancer. Put the web layer behind the load balancer and enable AWS WAF” is the correct answer.

INCORRECT: “Create a Classic Load Balancer. Put the web layer behind the load balancer and enable AWS WAF” is incorrect as you cannot use AWS WAF with a classic load balancer.

INCORRECT: “Create a Network Load Balancer. Put the web layer behind the load balancer and enable AWS WAF” is incorrect as you cannot use AWS WAF with a network load balancer.

INCORRECT: “Create an Application Load Balancer. Put the web layer behind the load balancer and use AWS Shield Standard” is incorrect as you cannot use AWS Shield to protect against XSS attacks. Shield is used to protect against DDoS attacks.

References

Exam Question 22

A company’s website is using an Amazon RDS MySQL Multi-AZ DB instance for its transactional data storage. There are other internal systems that query this DB instance to fetch data for internal batch processing. The RDS DB instance slows down significantly when the internal systems fetch data. This impacts the website’s read and write performance, and the users experience slow response times.

Which solution will improve the website’s performance?

A. Use an RDS PostgreSQL DB instance instead of a MySQL database.
B. Use Amazon ElastiCache to cache the query responses for the website.
C. Add an additional Availability Zone to the current RDS MySQL Multi-AZ DB instance.
D. Add a read replica to the RDS DB instance and configure the internal systems to query the read replica.

Correct Answer

D. Add a read replica to the RDS DB instance and configure the internal systems to query the read replica.

Answer Description

Amazon RDS Read Replicas
Enhanced performance
You can reduce the load on your source DB instance by routing read queries from your applications to the read replica. Read replicas allow you to elastically scale out beyond the capacity constraints of a single DB instance for read-heavy database workloads. Because read replicas can be promoted to master status, they are useful as part of a sharding implementation.

To further maximize read performance, Amazon RDS for MySQL allows you to add table indexes directly to Read Replicas, without those indexes being present on the master.

Exam Question 23

A financial services company has a web application that serves users in the United States and Europe. The application consists of a database tier and a web server tier. The database tier consists of a MySQL database hosted in us-east-1. Amazon Route 53 geoproximity routing is used to direct traffic to instances in the closest Region. A performance review of the system reveals that European users are not receiving the same level of query performance as those in the United States.

Which changes should be made to the database tier to improve performance?

A. Migrate the database to Amazon RDS for MySQL. Configure Multi-AZ in one of the European Regions.
B. Migrate the database to Amazon DynamoDB. Use DynamoDB global tables to enable replication to additional Regions.
C. Deploy MySQL instances in each Region. Deploy an Application Load Balancer in front of MySQL to reduce the load on the primary instance.
D. Migrate the database to an Amazon Aurora global database in MySQL compatibility mode. Configure read replicas in one of the European Regions.

Correct Answer

D. Migrate the database to an Amazon Aurora global database in MySQL compatibility mode. Configure read replicas in one of the European Regions.

Answer Description

The issue here is latency with read queries being directed from Australia to UK which is great physical distance. A solution is required for improving read performance in Australia.

An Aurora global database consists of one primary AWS Region where your data is mastered, and up to five read-only, secondary AWS Regions.

Aurora replicates data to the secondary AWS Regions with typical latency of under a second. You issue write operations directly to the primary DB instance in the primary AWS Region.

This solution will provide better performance for users in the Australia Region for queries. Writes must still take place in the UK Region but read performance will be greatly improved.

CORRECT: “Migrate the database to an Amazon Aurora global database in MySQL compatibility mode. Configure read replicas in ap-southeast-2” is the correct answer.

INCORRECT: “Migrate the database to Amazon RDS for MySQL. Configure Multi-AZ in the Australian Region” is incorrect. The database is located in UK. If the database is migrated to Australia then the reverse problem will occur. Multi-AZ does not assist with improving query performance across Regions.

INCORRECT: “Migrate the database to Amazon DynamoDB. Use DynamoDB global tables to enable replication to additional Regions” is incorrect as a relational database running on MySQL is unlikely to be compatible with DynamoDB.

INCORRECT: “Deploy MySQL instances in each Region. Deploy an Application Load Balancer in front of MySQL to reduce the load on the primary instance” is incorrect as you can only put ALBs in front of the web tier, not the DB tier.

References

Amazon Aurora > User Guide for Aurora > Using Amazon Aurora global databases

Exam Question 24

A company is performing an AWS Well-Architected Framework review of an existing workload deployed on AWS. The review identified a public-facing website running on the same Amazon EC2 instance as a Microsoft Active Directory domain controller that was installed recently to support other AWS services. A solutions architect needs to recommend a new design that would improve the security of the architecture and minimize the administrative demand on IT staff.

What should the solutions architect recommend?

A. Use AWS Directory Service to create a managed Active Directory. Uninstall Active Directory on the current EC2 instance.
B. Create another EC2 instance in the same subnet and reinstall Active Directory on it. Uninstall Active Directory.
C. Use AWS Directory Service to create an Active Directory connector. Proxy Active Directory requests to the Active domain controller running on the current EC2 instance.
D. Enable AWS Single Sign-On (AWS SSO) with Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) 2.0 federation with the current Active Directory controller. Modify the EC2 instance’s security group to deny public access to Active Directory.

Correct Answer

A. Use AWS Directory Service to create a managed Active Directory. Uninstall Active Directory on the current EC2 instance.

Answer Description

AWS Managed Microsoft AD: AWS Directory Service lets you run Microsoft Active Directory (AD) as a managed service. AWS Directory Service for Microsoft Active Directory, also referred to as AWS Managed Microsoft AD, is powered by Windows Server 2012 R2. When you select and launch this directory type, it is created as a highly available pair of domain controllers connected to your virtual private cloud (VPC). The domain controllers run in different Availability Zones in a region of your choice. Host monitoring and recovery, data replication, snapshots, and software updates are automatically configured and managed for you.

Migrate AD to AWS Managed AD and keep the webserver alone. Reduce risk = remove AD from that EC2. Minimize admin = remove AD from any EC2

-> use AWS Directory Service

Active Directory connector is only for ON-PREM AD. The one they have exists in the cloud already.

Exam Question 25

A company hosts a static website within an Amazon S3 bucket. A solutions architect needs to ensure that data can be recovered in case of accidental deletion.

Which action will accomplish this?

A. Enable Amazon S3 versioning.
B. Enable Amazon S3 Intelligent-Tiering.
C. Enable an Amazon S3 lifecycle policy.
D. Enable Amazon S3 cross-Region replication.

Correct Answer

A. Enable Amazon S3 versioning.

Answer Description

Data can be recover if versioning enable, also it provide a extra protection like file delete, MFA delete. MFA. Delete only works for CLI or API interaction, not in the AWS Management Console. Also, you cannot make version DELETE actions with MFA using IAM user credentials. You must use your root AWS account.

Object Versioning: Use Amazon S3 Versioning to keep multiple versions of an object in one bucket. For example, you could store my-image.jpg (version 111111) and my-image.jpg (version 222222) in a single bucket. S3 Versioning protects you from the consequences of unintended overwrites and deletions. You can also use it to archive objects so that you have access to previous versions.

You must explicitly enable S3 Versioning on your bucket. By default, S3 Versioning is disabled. Regardless of whether you have enabled Versioning, each object in your bucket has a version ID. If you have not enabled Versioning, Amazon S3 sets the value of the version ID to null. If S3 Versioning is enabled, Amazon S3 assigns a version ID value for the object. This value distinguishes it from other versions of the same key.

Object versioning is a means of keeping multiple variants of an object in the same Amazon S3 bucket. Versioning provides the ability to recover from both unintended user actions and application failures. You can use versioning to preserve, retrieve, and restore every version of every object stored in your Amazon S3 bucket.

CORRECT: “Enable Amazon S3 versioning” is the correct answer.

INCORRECT: “Enable Amazon S3 Intelligent-Tiering” is incorrect. This is a storage class that automatically moves data between frequent access and infrequent access classes based on usage patterns.

INCORRECT: “Enable an Amazon S3 lifecycle policy” is incorrect. An S3 lifecycle policy is a set of rules that define actions that apply to groups of S3 objects such as transitioning objects to another storage class.

INCORRECT: “Enable Amazon S3 cross-Region replication” is incorrect as this is used to copy objects to different regions. CRR relies on versioning which is the feature that is required for protecting against accidental deletion.

References

Exam Question 26

A company’s production application runs online transaction processing (OLTP) transactions on an Amazon RDS MySQL DB instance. The company is launching a new reporting tool that will access the same data.

The reporting tool must be highly available and not impact the performance of the production application.

How can this be achieved?

A. Create hourly snapshots of the production RDS DB instance.
B. Create a Multi-AZ RDS Read Replica of the production RDS DB instance.
C. Create multiple RDS Read Replicas of the production RDS DB instance. Place the Read Replicas in an Auto Scaling group.
D. Create a Single-AZ RDS Read Replica of the production RDS DB instance. Create a second Single-AZ RDS Read Replica from the replica.

Correct Answer

B. Create a Multi-AZ RDS Read Replica of the production RDS DB instance.

Answer Description

Amazon RDS Read Replicas Now Support Multi-AZ Deployments

Amazon RDS Read Replicas enable you to create one or more read-only copies of your database instance within the same AWS Region or in a different AWS Region. Updates made to the source database are then asynchronously copied to your Read Replicas. In addition to providing scalability for read-heavy workloads, Read Replicas can be promoted to become a standalone database instance when needed.

Amazon RDS Multi-AZ deployments provide enhanced availability for database instances within a single AWS Region. With Multi-AZ, your data is synchronously replicated to a standby in a different Availability Zone (AZ). In the event of an infrastructure failure, Amazon RDS performs an automatic failover to the standby, minimizing disruption to your applications.

You can now use Read Replicas with Multi-AZ as part of a disaster recovery (DR) strategy for your production databases. A well-designed and tested DR plan is critical for maintaining business continuity after a disaster. A Read Replica in a different region than the source database can be used as a standby database and promoted to become the new production database in case of a regional disruption.

You can create a read replica as a Multi-AZ DB instance. Amazon RDS creates a standby of your replica in another Availability Zone for failover support for the replica. Creating your read replica as a Multi-AZ DB instance is independent of whether the source database is a Multi-AZ DB instance.

CORRECT: “Create a Multi-AZ RDS Read Replica of the production RDS DB instance” is the correct answer.

INCORRECT: “Create a Single-AZ RDS Read Replica of the production RDS DB instance. Create a second Single-AZ RDS Read Replica from the replica” is incorrect. Read replicas are primarily used for horizontal scaling. The best solution for high availability is to use a Multi-AZ read replica.

INCORRECT: “Create a cross-region Multi-AZ deployment and create a read replica in the second region” is incorrect as you cannot create a cross-region Multi-AZ deployment with RDS. INCORRECT: “Use Amazon Data Lifecycle Manager to automatically create and manage snapshots” is incorrect as using snapshots is not the best solution for high availability.

References

Exam Question 27

A company runs an application in a branch office within a small data closet with no virtualized compute resources. The application data is stored on an NFS volume. Compliance standards require a daily offsite backup of the NFS volume.

Which solution meet these requirements?

A. Install an AWS Storage Gateway file gateway on premises to replicate the data to Amazon S3.
B. Install an AWS Storage Gateway file gateway hardware appliance on premises to replicate the data to Amazon S3.
C. Install an AWS Storage Gateway volume gateway with stored volumes on premises to replicate the data to Amazon S3.
D. Install an AWS Storage Gateway volume gateway with cached volumes on premises to replicate the data to Amazon S3.

Correct Answer

B. Install an AWS Storage Gateway file gateway hardware appliance on premises to replicate the data to Amazon S3.

Answer Description

AWS Storage Gateway Hardware Appliance
Hardware Appliance: Storage Gateway is available as a hardware appliance, adding to the existing support for VMware ESXi, Microsoft Hyper-V, and Amazon EC2. This means that you can now make use of Storage Gateway in situations where you do not have a virtualized environment, server-class hardware or IT staff with the specialized skills that are needed to manage them. You can order appliances from Amazon.com for delivery to branch offices, warehouses, and “outpost” offices that lack dedicated IT resources. Setup (as you will see in a minute) is quick and easy, and gives you access to three storage solutions:

File Gateway: A file interface to Amazon S3, accessible via NFS or SMB. The files are stored as S3 objects, allowing you to make use of specialized S3 features such as lifecycle management and cross region replication. You can trigger AWS Lambda functions, run Amazon Athena queries, and use Amazon Macie to discover and classify sensitive data.

Keyword: NFS + Compliance

File gateway provides a virtual on-premises file server, which enables you to store and retrieve files as objects in Amazon S3. It can be used for on-premises applications, and for Amazon EC2- resident applications that need file storage in S3 for object based workloads. Used for flat files only, stored directly on S3. File gateway offers SMB or NFS-based access to data in Amazon S3 with local caching.

WS Storage Gateway – File Gateway

The table below shows the different gateways available and the interfaces and use cases:

Storage Gateway Overview

CORRECT: “Install an AWS Storage Gateway file gateway hardware appliance on premises to replicate the data to Amazon S3” is the correct answer.

INCORRECT: “Install an AWS Storage Gateway file gateway on premises to replicate the data to Amazon S3” is incorrect.

INCORRECT: “Install an AWS Storage Gateway volume gateway with stored volumes on premises to replicate the data to Amazon S3” is incorrect as unsupported NFS. INCORRECT: “Install an AWS Storage Gateway volume gateway with cached volumes on premises to replicate the data to Amazon S3” is incorrect as unsupported NFS.

References

Exam Question 28

A company’s web application is using multiple Linux Amazon EC2 instances and storing data on Amazon EBS volumes. The company is looking for a solution to increase the resiliency of the application in case of a failure and to provide storage that complies with atomicity, consistency, isolation, and durability (ACID).

What should a solutions architect do to meet these requirements?

A. Launch the application on EC2 instances in each Availability Zone. Attach EBS volumes to each EC2 instance.
B. Create an Application Load Balancer with Auto Scaling groups across multiple Availability Zones. Mount an instance store on each EC2 instance.
C. Create an Application Load Balancer with Auto Scaling groups across multiple Availability Zones. Store data on Amazon EFS and mount a target on each instance.
D. Create an Application Load Balancer with Auto Scaling groups across multiple Availability Zones. Store data using Amazon S3 One Zone-Infrequent Access (S3 One Zone-IA).

Correct Answer

C. Create an Application Load Balancer with Auto Scaling groups across multiple Availability Zones. Store data on Amazon EFS and mount a target on each instance.

Answer Description

How Amazon EFS Works with Amazon EC2
The following illustration shows an example VPC accessing an Amazon EFS file system. Here, EC2 instances in the VPC have file systems mounted.

In this illustration, the VPC has three Availability Zones, and each has one mount target created in it. We recommend that you access the file system from a mount target within the same Availability Zone. One of the Availability Zones has two subnets. However, a mount target is created in only one of the subnets.

Benefits of Auto Scaling
Better fault tolerance. Amazon EC2 Auto Scaling can detect when an instance is unhealthy, terminate it, and launch an instance to replace it. You can also configure Amazon EC2 Auto Scaling to use multiple Availability Zones. If one Availability Zone becomes unavailable, Amazon EC2 Auto Scaling can launch instances in another one to compensate.

Better availability. Amazon EC2 Auto Scaling helps ensure that your application always has the right amount of capacity to handle the current traffic demand.

Better cost management. Amazon EC2 Auto Scaling can dynamically increase and decrease capacity as needed. Because you pay for the EC2 instances you use, you save money by launching instances when they are needed and terminating them when they aren’t.

To increase the resiliency of the application the solutions architect can use Auto Scaling groups to launch and terminate instances across multiple availability zones based on demand. An application load balancer (ALB) can be used to direct traffic to the web application running on the EC2 instances.

Lastly, the Amazon Elastic File System (EFS) can assist with increasing the resilience of the application by providing a shared file system that can be mounted by multiple EC2 instances from multiple availability zones.

CORRECT: “Create an Application Load Balancer with Auto Scaling groups across multiple Availability Zones. Store data on Amazon EFS and mount a target on each instance” is the correct answer.

INCORRECT: “Launch the application on EC2 instances in each Availability Zone. Attach EBS volumes to each EC2 instance” is incorrect as the EBS volumes are single points of failure which are not shared with other instances.

INCORRECT: “Create an Application Load Balancer with Auto Scaling groups across multiple Availability Zones. Mount an instance store on each EC2 instance” is incorrect as instance stores are ephemeral data stores which means data is lost when powered down. Also, instance stores cannot be shared between instances.

INCORRECT: “Create an Application Load Balancer with Auto Scaling groups across multiple Availability Zones. Store data using Amazon S3 One Zone-Infrequent Access (S3 One Zone-IA)” is incorrect as there are data retrieval charges associated with this S3 tier. It is not a suitable storage tier for application files.

References

Exam Question 29

A data science team requires storage for nightly log processing. The size and number of logs is unknown and will persist for 24 hours only.

What is the MOST cost-effective solution?

A. Amazon S3 Glacier
B. Amazon S3 Standard
C. Amazon S3 Intelligent-Tiering
D. Amazon S3 One Zone-Infrequent Access (S3 One Zone-IA)

Correct Answer

B. Amazon S3 Standard

Answer Description

The S3 Intelligent-Tiering storage class is designed to optimize costs by automatically moving data to the most cost-effective access tier, without performance impact or operational overhead. It works by storing objects in two access tiers: one tier that is optimized for frequent access and another lower-cost tier that is optimized for infrequent access. This is an ideal use case for intelligent-tiering as the access patterns for the log files are not known.

CORRECT: “S3 Intelligent-Tiering” is the correct answer.

INCORRECT: “S3 Standard-Infrequent Access (S3 Standard-IA)” is incorrect as if the data is accessed often retrieval fees could become expensive.

INCORRECT: “S3 One Zone-Infrequent Access (S3 One Zone-IA)” is incorrect as if the data is accessed often retrieval fees could become expensive.

INCORRECT: “S3 Glacier” is incorrect as if the data is accessed often retrieval fees could become expensive. Glacier also requires more work in retrieving the data from the archive and quick access requirements can add further costs.

References

Exam Question 30

A company is hosting a web application on AWS using a single Amazon EC2 instance that stores user uploaded documents in an Amazon EBS volume. For better scalability and availability, the company duplicated the architecture and created a second EC2 instance and EBS volume in another Availability Zone, placing both behind an Application Load Balancer. After completing this change, users reported that each time they refreshed the website, they could see one subset of their documents or the other, but never all of the documents at the same time.

What should a solutions architect propose to ensure users see all of their documents at once?

A. Copy the data so both EBS volumes contain all the documents.
B. Configure the Application Load Balancer to direct a user to the server with the documents.
C. Copy the data from both EBS volumes to Amazon EFS. Modify the application to save new documents to Amazon EFS.
D. Configure the Application Load Balancer to send the request to both servers. Return each document from the correct server.

Correct Answer

C. Copy the data from both EBS volumes to Amazon EFS. Modify the application to save new documents to Amazon EFS.

Answer Description

Amazon EFS provides file storage in the AWS Cloud. With Amazon EFS, you can create a file system, mount the file system on an Amazon EC2 instance, and then read and write data to and from your file system. You can mount an Amazon EFS file system in your VPC, through the Network File System versions 4.0 and 4.1 (NFSv4) protocol. We recommend using a current generation Linux NFSv4.1 client, such as those found in the latest Amazon Linux, Redhat, and Ubuntu AMIs, in conjunction with the Amazon EFS Mount Helper. For instructions, see Using the amazon-efs-utils Tools.

For a list of Amazon EC2 Linux Amazon Machine Images (AMIs) that support this protocol, see NFS Support. For some AMIs, you’ll need to install an NFS client to mount your file system on your Amazon EC2 instance. For instructions, see Installing the NFS Client.

You can access your Amazon EFS file system concurrently from multiple NFS clients, so applications that scale beyond a single connection can access a file system. Amazon EC2 instances running in multiple Availability Zones within the same AWS Region can access the file system, so that many users can access and share a common data source.

How Amazon EFS Works with Amazon EC2

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