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List of Linux, Tmux, Vim Commands and Chrome OS Shortcuts

Linux is a free and open-source operating system. It’s been around since 1991, but it continues to be an important alternative choice away from Windows and Mac.

List of Linux, Tmux, Vim Commands and Chrome OS Shortcuts

List of Linux, Tmux, Vim Commands and Chrome OS Shortcuts

We’ve put together this collection of cheat sheets that you can follow to help you navigate the operating system and its programs effectively and get the most out of them. This bundle contains:

  • Linux commands
  • Chrome OS shortcuts
  • Vim commands
  • Tmux commands

Read this article to help you get even more from Linux! You will be required to complete a short form, but it’s well worth it!

Table of contents

Linux commands
Chrome OS shortcuts
Vim commands
Tmux commands

Linux commands

Clear the terminal screen. clear
Display recently used commands. You can also view these commands via the Up and Down keys. history
Repeat a recently used command. You can use !n repeat the n-th command in history or !-n to repeat what happened n commands ago. !
Display the manual for a terminal program. man
Display a brief description of a terminal program. A simpler alternative to the man command. whatis
Create a shortcut to a command or, when combined with the cd command, directory. alias
Exit or close the terminal. exit
Linux Commands for Terminal
Change directory. Used to navigate between folders. cd
Display current directory. pwd
Change current directory. cd
Display a list of files in the current directory. ls
Makes a copy of a file. Defaults to the current directory unless you specify a specific one. cp
Move a file from one directory to another. mv
Remove a file or set of files. rm
Display when a file was last accessed, modified, or changed. stat
Change the date accessed or date modified time of a given file to right now. touch
Delete a file or files. rmdir
Create a directory. Defaults to the current directory, but you can also specify one. mkdir
Delete a directory. Defaults to the current directory, but you can also specify one. The target directory must be completely empty. rmdir
Change the name of a file or set of files. rename
Search a specific directory (or your entire PC) to find files that match designated criteria. find
Search for files or directories. Faster than the find command, but has fewer options. locate
Search a specific file or set of files to see if a string of text exists and where. grep
Attach a separate filesystem (such as an external hard drive or USB stick) to your system’s main filesystem. mount
Detach a separate filesystem from your system’s main filesystem. umount
Display the contents of a text file. Also works with multiple files. cat
Modify the read, write, and execute permissions of a file. chmod
Change the user or group that owns a file. chown
Linux Commands for Navigation and File Management
Switch user. Unless you designate a specific user, this command will attempt to sign in as the root user (which you can think of as the system administrator) su
Displays the current user name. whoami
Display current user and group. id
Create or update a user’s password. passwd
Linux Commands for Users
Displays core system information such as kernel version, hardware, and operating system. uname
Enter before a command to perform the command as a system administrator. Users must have administrator privileges for this to work. sudo
Programs for installing software and updates. Which one to use depends on your Linux-based operating system. Each requires administrator rights and additional instructions, such as sudo apt install program-name. apt/dnf/pacman
Display the status of all current jobs. A job is a representation of a running process or group of processes. jobs
Send a job to the background. bg
Send a job to the foreground. fg
End a process according to its process ID (which you can get using the ps command). kill
End all processes whose names match your query. killall
Display a list of running processes. Defaults to processes started by the current user. ps
Displays a list of running processes, sorted by how much CPU each uses. Unlike ps, the command updates in real-time. top
Displays time since last boot. uptime
Finds the executable file for a program. whereis
Displays how much disk space is used and free on your system. df
Displays how much RAM is used and free on your system. free
Linux Commands for System Administration
Displays your IP address, network interfaces, bandwidth usage, and more. ip
Send or receive data from another computer on a network. Often used to test whether a network connection is established and the speed of that connection. ping
Lookup a domain’s DNS address. dig
Download a file wget
Secure Shell. Connect and login to s remote network location. ssh
Linux Commands for Network Management
Display a line of text. Often used in programs and scripts to relay information to users. echo
Displays possible factors of a decimal number. factor
Solve math equations. expr
Lookup a word in the dictionary. look
Miscellaneous Linux Commands

Chrome OS shortcuts

Open Print dialog Ctrl + P
Save the current webpage Ctrl + S
Refresh the page Ctrl + R
Refresh the page without loading cache Ctrl + Shift + R
Open a file Ctrl + O
View history Ctrl + H
Open Downloads Ctrl + J
Bookmark current page Ctrl + D
Bookmark all open tabs Ctrl + Shift + D
Toggle bookmarks bar Ctrl + Shift + B
Open Chrome’s menu Alt + E
Open Task Manager Search + Esc
View page source Ctrl + U
Open the Developer Tools panel Ctrl + Shift + I
Chrome OS Keyboard Shortcuts for basic Chrome functions
Show notifications Shift + Alt + N
Open Help Ctrl + Forward Slash (/)
Show Chrome OS shortcuts reference window Ctrl + Alt + Forward Slash (/)
Lock screen Search + L
Sign out of Google account Ctrl + Shift + Q (twice)
Increase screen resolution Ctrl + Shift + Plus (+)
Decrease screen resolution Ctrl + Shift + Minus (-)
Reset screen resolution Ctrl + Shift + Zero (0)
Increase/decrease keyboard backlight (if applicable) Alt + Brightness Up/Down
Take a screenshot of the entire screen Ctrl + Window Switcher
Take a screenshot of the selected region Ctrl + Shift + Window Switcher
Toggle external monitor modes (if applicable) Ctrl + Full Screen
Chrome OS Keyboard Shortcuts for Chrome OS System
Toggle Caps Lock Alt + Search
Delete next character. Equivalent to Delete key on Windows Alt + Backspace
Delete previous word Ctrl + Backspace
Delete next word Ctrl + Alt + Backspace
Select all Ctrl + A
Select all text in the address bar Ctrl + L
Move the cursor to the next/previous word Ctrl + Right/Left
Select next/previous word Ctrl + Shift + Right/Left
Select all text to the end/beginning of the current line Shift + Search + Right/Left
Jump to the end/beginning of a text field/document Ctrl + Search + Right/Left
Copy Ctrl + C
Cut Ctrl + X
Paste Ctrl + V
Paste without formatting Ctrl + Shift + V
Undo Ctrl + Z
Redo Ctrl + Y
Chrome OS Keyboard Shortcuts for Text Editing
Zoom in Ctrl + Plus (+)
Zoom out Ctrl + Minus (-)
Reset zoom to 100% Ctrl + 0 (Zero)
Search the current page Ctrl + F
Go back one page Alt + Left
Go forward one page Alt + Right
Scroll up page. Equivalent to Page Up key in Windows Alt + Up
Scroll down page. Equivalent to Page Down key in Windows Alt + Down
Jump to top of page. Equivalent to Home key in Windows Ctrl + Alt + Up
Jump to bottom of page. Equivalent to End key in Windows Ctrl + Alt + Down
Chrome OS Keyboard Shortcuts for Webpage Navigation
Open new window Ctrl + N
Open new incognito window Ctrl + Shift + N
Open new tab Ctrl + T
Close current tab Ctrl + W
Close current window Ctrl + Shift + W
Reopen last closed tab Ctrl + Shift + T
Switch to tab 1-8 Ctrl + 1 – 8
Switch to last tab Ctrl + 9
Move to next tab Ctrl + Tab
Move to prior tab Ctrl + Shift + Tab
Open link in a new tab Ctrl + Click
Open link in a new tab and switch to it immediately Ctrl + shift + Click
Open link in a new window Shift + Click
Chrome OS Keyboard Shortcuts for Navigating Tabs and Windows
Open shelf apps 1-8 Alt + 1-8
Open last app on the shelf Alt + 9
Switch to last-opened app; keep pressing to cycle throughs apps Alt + Tab
Switch to least recently opened app; keep pressing to cycle through apps Alt + Shift + Tab
Pin current app to the left side of the screen Alt + [
Pin current app to the right side of the screen Alt + ]
Maximize current window Alt + Equals (=)
Minimize current window Alt + Minus (-)
Move window between screens (when using multiple monitors) Search + Alt + M
Chrome OS Keyboard Shortcuts for Apps and Shelf
Equivalent to a right-click Alt + Click
Equivalent to a middle-click Click with three fingers
Scroll up or down on the page Swipe up or down with two fingers
Go forward/back one page Swipe right/left with two fingers
Equivalent to the Window Switcher key Swipe down with three fingers
Move between open Chrome tabs Swipe right/left with three fingers
Chrome OS Keyboard Shortcuts for Trackpad
Highlight bookmarks bar; use arrows to navigate Shift + Alt + B
Highlight the icons in the address bar row Shift + Alt + T
Highlight the status area at the bottom-right Shift + Alt + S
Highlight the first shelf icon Shift + Alt + L
Move to previous keyboard-accessible area on screen Ctrl + Back
Move to next keyboard-accessible area on screen Ctrl + Forward
Opens right-click menu for highlighted element Shift + Search + Volume Up
Toggle high contrast mode Search + Ctrl + H
Magnify the entire screen Search + Ctrl + M
Magnify part of the screen Search + Ctrl + D
Toggle ChromeVox, the built-in screen reader Ctrl + Alt + Z
Chrome OS Keyboard Shortcuts for Accessibility/Advanced Navigation
Add “www.” and “.com” to text in the address bar and open page Ctrl + Enter
Show hidden files in Files app Ctrl + Period (.)
Use F keys (F1 through F12) Search + 1-Equals (=)
Switch to next user (if applicable) Ctrl + Alt + Period (.)
Switch to previous user (if applicable) Ctrl + Alt + Comma (,)
Cycle between keyboard languages (if applicable) Ctrl + Shift + Space
Open Files app Alt + Shift + M
Miscellaneous Chrome OS Keyboard Shortcuts

Vim commands

Move cursor left h
Move cursor down j
Move cursor up k
Move cursor right l
Move cursor to the start of the next word w OR W
Move cursor to the start of the previous word b OR B
Move forward to the end of a word e OR E
Move to the start of the line 0
Move to the first non-blank character of the line ^
Move to the end of the line $
Go to the last line of the document G
Go to the line number n nG OR :n
To the position before the latest jump, where the last m command was given
Move to next occurrence of character x fx
Move to one character before the character x tx
Move to next paragraph }
Move to previous paragraph {
Move to home (top) of screen H
Move to last line of screen L
Move to middle of screen M
Move to 3rd instance of character x forward from cursor on current line 3, f, x
Move to 3rd instance of character x back from cursor on current line 3, F, x
Vim Commands for Cursor Movement
Replace a single character r
Cut (delete) a line dd
Yank (copy) a line yy
Yank (copy) two lines 2yy
Join line below to the current one J
Change (replace) entire line cc OR S
Change (replace) to the end of the word cw
Change (replace) to the end of the line c$
Delete character and substitute text s
Transpose two letters (letter and paste) xp
Undo u
Redo Ctrl r
Repeat last command .
Vim Commands for Editing a File
Search for word under cursor *
Search for pattern /pattern
Search backward for pattern ?pattern
Repeat search in same direction n
Repeat search in opposite direction N
Replace all instances of old with new “%s/old/new/g
Replace all instances of old with new, with confirmations :%s/old/new/gc
Vim Commands for Search and Replace
Move screen up by half page Ctrl u
Move screen up by one page Ctrl b
Move screen down by half page Ctrl d
Move screen down by one page Ctrl f
Center screen on cursor zz
Align top of screen with cursor zt
Align bottom of screen with cursor zb
Vim Commands for Screen Movement
Enter insert mode i
Insert at the beginning of the line l
Insert (append) after the cursor a
Insert (append) at the end of the line A
Append (open) a new line below the current line o
Append (open) a new line above the current line O
Insert (append) at the end of the word ea
Exit insert mode Esc
Vim Commands for Insert Mode (Insert Text)
Toggle case (Case => cASE)
Uppercase gU
Lowercase gu
Uppercase current line (also gUgU) gUU
Lowercase current line (also gugu) guu
Vim Commands for Change Case
Start visual mode, mark lines, then do a command (like y-yank) v
Start linewise visual mode V
Move to other end of marked area vo
Start visual block mode Ctrl v
Move to other corner of block vO
Mark a word vaw
Mark a block with () vab
Mark a block with {} vaB
Mark inner block with () vib
Mark inner block with {} viB
Exit visual mode Esc
Vim Commands for Visual Mode (Mark Text)
Shift text right >
Shift text left <
Auto-indent current line ==
Shift current line left by shiftwidth <<
Shift current line right by shiftwidth >>
Yank (copy) marked text y
Delete marked text d
Switch case
Vim Commands for Visual Commands
Create a fold from the cursor down # lines zf#j
String creates a fold from the cursor to string zf/
Move the cursor to the next fold zj
Move the cursor to the previous fold zk
Toggle a fold under cursor za
Open a fold at the cursor zo
Open all folds at the cursor zO
Close a fold under cursor zc
Increase the foldlevel by one zm
Close all open folds zM
Decrease the foldlevel by one zr
Decrease the foldlevel to zero – all folds will be open zR
Delete the fold at the cursor zd
Delete all folds zE
Move to start of open fold [z
Move to end of open fold ]z
Vim Commands for Folding Commands
Move to tab number # #gt
Move the current split window into its own tab Ctrl w, t
Move current tab to the #th position (indexed from 0) :tabmove #
Open a file in a new tab :tabnew filename / :tabn filename
Close the current tab and all its windows :tabclose / :tabc
Close all tabs except the current one :tabonly / :tabo
Move to the next tab gt/ :tabnext / :tabn
Move to the previous tab gT/ :tabprev / :tabp
Vim Commands for Tabs
Edit a file in a new buffer :e filename
Open a blank file for editing :ene
Go to the next buffer :bnext / :bn
Go to the previous buffer :bprev / :pb
Delete a buffer (close a file) :bd
Open a file in a new buffer and split window :sp filename
Open a file in a new buffer and vertically split window :vs filename
Split window Ctrl w, s
Switch windows Ctrl w, w
Quit a window Ctrl w, q
Split window vertically Ctrl w, v
Move cursor to window left Ctrl w, h
Move cursor to window right Ctrl w, l
Move cursor to window above Ctrl w, k
Move cursor to window below Ctrl w, j
Rotate windows clockwise Ctrl w, r
Move current window to a new tab Ctrl w, T
Close all windows except current window :on
Maximize width of active window Ctrl w, |
Minimize width of active window Ctrl w, 1, |
Maximize height of active window Ctrl w, _
Minimize height of active window Ctrl w, 1, _
Equalize the size of windows Ctrl w, =
Vim Commands for Working with Multiple Files
Write (save) the file, but don’t exit :w
Write (save) and quit :wq
Write (save) current file if modified and quit :x OR ZZ
Quit (fails if there are unsaved changes) :q
Quit and discard unsaved changes :q!
Quit all buffers and windows :qa
Quit without checking for changes ZQ
Vim Commands for Exiting a File

Tmux commands

Default prefix key Ctrl + b
Show time (ESC returns to the terminal) t
Enter a command (Example: “:new-session”) :
List all commands that tmux supports list-commands
Tmux Commands for General
An open command prompt (or pseudo-terminal). Panes may appear side by side or vertically stacked inside a window Pane
Your view of open panes Window
A set of open windows Session
The background process that displays your session Client
A single server manages all open session (Servers and clients are separate processes that each communicates through a socket in /tmp) Server
Tmux Commands for Tmux Terms
Split screen or pane in half vertically, creating a new pane on the right %
Split screen or pane in half horizontally, creating a new pane at the bottom
Switch to the adjacent pane <arrow key>
Switch to the next pane o
Show pane numbers (when numbers appear, press number to switch to that pane) q
Move current pane to the left {
Move current pane to the right }
Close the current pane x
Resize pane in steps of one cell Ctrl + <arrow key>
Resize pane in steps of five cells Alt + <arrow key>
Arrange panes in the even-horizontal preset layout Alt + 1
Arrange panes in the even-vertical preset layout Alt + 2
Arrange panes in the main-horizontal preset layout Alt + 3
Arrange panes in the main-vertical preset layout Alt + 4
Arrange panes in the tiled preset layout Alt + 5
Tmux Commands for Creating and Managing Panes
Create a new window c
Detach pane into a new window !
Switch to the previous window (in order of creation) n
Switch to the next window (in order of creation) p
Switch to the window used most recently l
List all windows and their corresponding numbers w
Switch to the corresponding window <window number>
Rename current window ,
Display info about the current window i
Search for text in open windows (ESC exits the search) f
Tmux Commands for Creating and Managing Windows
Create a new session new-session
Rename current session $
List open sessions list-session
Create a new client and attach it to the specified session (-t target-session) attach-session
Detach clients attached to the current session detach-client-session
Destroy the current or specified session kill-session
Tmux Commands for Creating and Managing Sessions

Alex Lim is a certified IT Technical Support Architect with over 15 years of experience in designing, implementing, and troubleshooting complex IT systems and networks. He has worked for leading IT companies, such as Microsoft, IBM, and Cisco, providing technical support and solutions to clients across various industries and sectors. Alex has a bachelor’s degree in computer science from the National University of Singapore and a master’s degree in information security from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He is also the author of several best-selling books on IT technical support, such as The IT Technical Support Handbook and Troubleshooting IT Systems and Networks. Alex lives in Bandar, Johore, Malaysia with his wife and two chilrdren. You can reach him at [email protected] or follow him on Website | Twitter | Facebook

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