List of Linux, Tmux, Vim Commands and Chrome OS Shortcuts

Linux is a free and open-source operating system. It’s been around since 1991, but it continues to be an important alternative choice away from Windows and Mac.

List of Linux, Tmux, Vim Commands and Chrome OS Shortcuts
List of Linux, Tmux, Vim Commands and Chrome OS Shortcuts

We’ve put together this collection of cheat sheets that you can follow to help you navigate the operating system and its programs effectively and get the most out of them. This bundle contains:

  • Linux commands
  • Chrome OS shortcuts
  • Vim commands
  • Tmux commands

Read this article to help you get even more from Linux! You will be required to complete a short form, but it’s well worth it!

Table of contents

Linux commands
Chrome OS shortcuts
Vim commands
Tmux commands

Linux commands

Clear the terminal screen.clear
Display recently used commands. You can also view these commands via the Up and Down keys.history
Repeat a recently used command. You can use !n repeat the n-th command in history or !-n to repeat what happened n commands ago.!
Display the manual for a terminal program.man
Display a brief description of a terminal program. A simpler alternative to the man command.whatis
Create a shortcut to a command or, when combined with the cd command, directory.alias
Exit or close the terminal.exit
Linux Commands for Terminal
Change directory. Used to navigate between folders.cd
Display current directory.pwd
Change current directory.cd
Display a list of files in the current directory.ls
Makes a copy of a file. Defaults to the current directory unless you specify a specific one.cp
Move a file from one directory to another.mv
Remove a file or set of files.rm
Display when a file was last accessed, modified, or changed.stat
Change the date accessed or date modified time of a given file to right now.touch
Delete a file or files.rmdir
Create a directory. Defaults to the current directory, but you can also specify one.mkdir
Delete a directory. Defaults to the current directory, but you can also specify one. The target directory must be completely empty.rmdir
Change the name of a file or set of files.rename
Search a specific directory (or your entire PC) to find files that match designated criteria.find
Search for files or directories. Faster than the find command, but has fewer options.locate
Search a specific file or set of files to see if a string of text exists and where.grep
Attach a separate filesystem (such as an external hard drive or USB stick) to your system’s main filesystem.mount
Detach a separate filesystem from your system’s main filesystem.umount
Display the contents of a text file. Also works with multiple files.cat
Modify the read, write, and execute permissions of a file.chmod
Change the user or group that owns a file.chown
Linux Commands for Navigation and File Management
Switch user. Unless you designate a specific user, this command will attempt to sign in as the root user (which you can think of as the system administrator)su
Displays the current user name.whoami
Display current user and group.id
Create or update a user’s password.passwd
Linux Commands for Users
Displays core system information such as kernel version, hardware, and operating system.uname
Enter before a command to perform the command as a system administrator. Users must have administrator privileges for this to work.sudo
Programs for installing software and updates. Which one to use depends on your Linux-based operating system. Each requires administrator rights and additional instructions, such as sudo apt install program-name.apt/dnf/pacman
Display the status of all current jobs. A job is a representation of a running process or group of processes.jobs
Send a job to the background.bg
Send a job to the foreground.fg
End a process according to its process ID (which you can get using the ps command).kill
End all processes whose names match your query.killall
Display a list of running processes. Defaults to processes started by the current user.ps
Displays a list of running processes, sorted by how much CPU each uses. Unlike ps, the command updates in real-time.top
Displays time since last boot.uptime
Finds the executable file for a program.whereis
Displays how much disk space is used and free on your system.df
Displays how much RAM is used and free on your system.free
Linux Commands for System Administration
Displays your IP address, network interfaces, bandwidth usage, and more.ip
Send or receive data from another computer on a network. Often used to test whether a network connection is established and the speed of that connection.ping
Lookup a domain’s DNS address.dig
Download a filewget
Secure Shell. Connect and login to s remote network location.ssh
Linux Commands for Network Management
Display a line of text. Often used in programs and scripts to relay information to users.echo
Displays possible factors of a decimal number.factor
Solve math equations.expr
Lookup a word in the dictionary.look
Miscellaneous Linux Commands

Chrome OS shortcuts

Open Print dialogCtrl + P
Save the current webpageCtrl + S
Refresh the pageCtrl + R
Refresh the page without loading cacheCtrl + Shift + R
Open a fileCtrl + O
View historyCtrl + H
Open DownloadsCtrl + J
Bookmark current pageCtrl + D
Bookmark all open tabsCtrl + Shift + D
Toggle bookmarks barCtrl + Shift + B
Open Chrome’s menuAlt + E
Open Task ManagerSearch + Esc
View page sourceCtrl + U
Open the Developer Tools panelCtrl + Shift + I
Chrome OS Keyboard Shortcuts for basic Chrome functions
Show notificationsShift + Alt + N
Open HelpCtrl + Forward Slash (/)
Show Chrome OS shortcuts reference windowCtrl + Alt + Forward Slash (/)
Lock screenSearch + L
Sign out of Google accountCtrl + Shift + Q (twice)
Increase screen resolutionCtrl + Shift + Plus (+)
Decrease screen resolutionCtrl + Shift + Minus (-)
Reset screen resolutionCtrl + Shift + Zero (0)
Increase/decrease keyboard backlight (if applicable)Alt + Brightness Up/Down
Take a screenshot of the entire screenCtrl + Window Switcher
Take a screenshot of the selected regionCtrl + Shift + Window Switcher
Toggle external monitor modes (if applicable)Ctrl + Full Screen
Chrome OS Keyboard Shortcuts for Chrome OS System
Toggle Caps LockAlt + Search
Delete next character. Equivalent to Delete key on WindowsAlt + Backspace
Delete previous wordCtrl + Backspace
Delete next wordCtrl + Alt + Backspace
Select allCtrl + A
Select all text in the address barCtrl + L
Move the cursor to the next/previous wordCtrl + Right/Left
Select next/previous wordCtrl + Shift + Right/Left
Select all text to the end/beginning of the current lineShift + Search + Right/Left
Jump to the end/beginning of a text field/documentCtrl + Search + Right/Left
CopyCtrl + C
CutCtrl + X
PasteCtrl + V
Paste without formattingCtrl + Shift + V
UndoCtrl + Z
RedoCtrl + Y
Chrome OS Keyboard Shortcuts for Text Editing
Zoom inCtrl + Plus (+)
Zoom outCtrl + Minus (-)
Reset zoom to 100%Ctrl + 0 (Zero)
Search the current pageCtrl + F
Go back one pageAlt + Left
Go forward one pageAlt + Right
Scroll up page. Equivalent to Page Up key in WindowsAlt + Up
Scroll down page. Equivalent to Page Down key in WindowsAlt + Down
Jump to top of page. Equivalent to Home key in WindowsCtrl + Alt + Up
Jump to bottom of page. Equivalent to End key in WindowsCtrl + Alt + Down
Chrome OS Keyboard Shortcuts for Webpage Navigation
Open new windowCtrl + N
Open new incognito windowCtrl + Shift + N
Open new tabCtrl + T
Close current tabCtrl + W
Close current windowCtrl + Shift + W
Reopen last closed tabCtrl + Shift + T
Switch to tab 1-8Ctrl + 1 – 8
Switch to last tabCtrl + 9
Move to next tabCtrl + Tab
Move to prior tabCtrl + Shift + Tab
Open link in a new tabCtrl + Click
Open link in a new tab and switch to it immediatelyCtrl + shift + Click
Open link in a new windowShift + Click
Chrome OS Keyboard Shortcuts for Navigating Tabs and Windows
Open shelf apps 1-8Alt + 1-8
Open last app on the shelfAlt + 9
Switch to last-opened app; keep pressing to cycle throughs appsAlt + Tab
Switch to least recently opened app; keep pressing to cycle through appsAlt + Shift + Tab
Pin current app to the left side of the screenAlt + [
Pin current app to the right side of the screenAlt + ]
Maximize current windowAlt + Equals (=)
Minimize current windowAlt + Minus (-)
Move window between screens (when using multiple monitors)Search + Alt + M
Chrome OS Keyboard Shortcuts for Apps and Shelf
Equivalent to a right-clickAlt + Click
Equivalent to a middle-clickClick with three fingers
Scroll up or down on the pageSwipe up or down with two fingers
Go forward/back one pageSwipe right/left with two fingers
Equivalent to the Window Switcher keySwipe down with three fingers
Move between open Chrome tabsSwipe right/left with three fingers
Chrome OS Keyboard Shortcuts for Trackpad
Highlight bookmarks bar; use arrows to navigateShift + Alt + B
Highlight the icons in the address bar rowShift + Alt + T
Highlight the status area at the bottom-rightShift + Alt + S
Highlight the first shelf iconShift + Alt + L
Move to previous keyboard-accessible area on screenCtrl + Back
Move to next keyboard-accessible area on screenCtrl + Forward
Opens right-click menu for highlighted elementShift + Search + Volume Up
Toggle high contrast modeSearch + Ctrl + H
Magnify the entire screenSearch + Ctrl + M
Magnify part of the screenSearch + Ctrl + D
Toggle ChromeVox, the built-in screen readerCtrl + Alt + Z
Chrome OS Keyboard Shortcuts for Accessibility/Advanced Navigation
Add “www.” and “.com” to text in the address bar and open pageCtrl + Enter
Show hidden files in Files appCtrl + Period (.)
Use F keys (F1 through F12)Search + 1-Equals (=)
Switch to next user (if applicable)Ctrl + Alt + Period (.)
Switch to previous user (if applicable)Ctrl + Alt + Comma (,)
Cycle between keyboard languages (if applicable)Ctrl + Shift + Space
Open Files appAlt + Shift + M
Miscellaneous Chrome OS Keyboard Shortcuts

Vim commands

Move cursor lefth
Move cursor downj
Move cursor upk
Move cursor rightl
Move cursor to the start of the next wordw OR W
Move cursor to the start of the previous wordb OR B
Move forward to the end of a worde OR E
Move to the start of the line0
Move to the first non-blank character of the line^
Move to the end of the line$
Go to the last line of the documentG
Go to the line number nnG OR :n
To the position before the latest jump, where the last m command was given
Move to next occurrence of character xfx
Move to one character before the character xtx
Move to next paragraph}
Move to previous paragraph{
Move to home (top) of screenH
Move to last line of screenL
Move to middle of screenM
Move to 3rd instance of character x forward from cursor on current line3, f, x
Move to 3rd instance of character x back from cursor on current line3, F, x
Vim Commands for Cursor Movement
Replace a single characterr
Cut (delete) a linedd
Yank (copy) a lineyy
Yank (copy) two lines2yy
Join line below to the current oneJ
Change (replace) entire linecc OR S
Change (replace) to the end of the wordcw
Change (replace) to the end of the linec$
Delete character and substitute texts
Transpose two letters (letter and paste)xp
Undou
RedoCtrl r
Repeat last command.
Vim Commands for Editing a File
Search for word under cursor*
Search for pattern/pattern
Search backward for pattern?pattern
Repeat search in same directionn
Repeat search in opposite directionN
Replace all instances of old with new“%s/old/new/g
Replace all instances of old with new, with confirmations:%s/old/new/gc
Vim Commands for Search and Replace
Move screen up by half pageCtrl u
Move screen up by one pageCtrl b
Move screen down by half pageCtrl d
Move screen down by one pageCtrl f
Center screen on cursorzz
Align top of screen with cursorzt
Align bottom of screen with cursorzb
Vim Commands for Screen Movement
Enter insert modei
Insert at the beginning of the linel
Insert (append) after the cursora
Insert (append) at the end of the lineA
Append (open) a new line below the current lineo
Append (open) a new line above the current lineO
Insert (append) at the end of the wordea
Exit insert modeEsc
Vim Commands for Insert Mode (Insert Text)
Toggle case (Case => cASE)
UppercasegU
Lowercasegu
Uppercase current line (also gUgU)gUU
Lowercase current line (also gugu)guu
Vim Commands for Change Case
Start visual mode, mark lines, then do a command (like y-yank)v
Start linewise visual modeV
Move to other end of marked areavo
Start visual block modeCtrl v
Move to other corner of blockvO
Mark a wordvaw
Mark a block with ()vab
Mark a block with {}vaB
Mark inner block with ()vib
Mark inner block with {}viB
Exit visual modeEsc
Vim Commands for Visual Mode (Mark Text)
Shift text right>
Shift text left<
Auto-indent current line==
Shift current line left by shiftwidth<<
Shift current line right by shiftwidth>>
Yank (copy) marked texty
Delete marked textd
Switch case
Vim Commands for Visual Commands
Create a fold from the cursor down # lineszf#j
String creates a fold from the cursor to stringzf/
Move the cursor to the next foldzj
Move the cursor to the previous foldzk
Toggle a fold under cursorza
Open a fold at the cursorzo
Open all folds at the cursorzO
Close a fold under cursorzc
Increase the foldlevel by onezm
Close all open foldszM
Decrease the foldlevel by onezr
Decrease the foldlevel to zero – all folds will be openzR
Delete the fold at the cursorzd
Delete all foldszE
Move to start of open fold[z
Move to end of open fold]z
Vim Commands for Folding Commands
Move to tab number ##gt
Move the current split window into its own tabCtrl w, t
Move current tab to the #th position (indexed from 0):tabmove #
Open a file in a new tab:tabnew filename / :tabn filename
Close the current tab and all its windows:tabclose / :tabc
Close all tabs except the current one:tabonly / :tabo
Move to the next tabgt/ :tabnext / :tabn
Move to the previous tabgT/ :tabprev / :tabp
Vim Commands for Tabs
Edit a file in a new buffer:e filename
Open a blank file for editing:ene
Go to the next buffer:bnext / :bn
Go to the previous buffer:bprev / :pb
Delete a buffer (close a file):bd
Open a file in a new buffer and split window:sp filename
Open a file in a new buffer and vertically split window:vs filename
Split windowCtrl w, s
Switch windowsCtrl w, w
Quit a windowCtrl w, q
Split window verticallyCtrl w, v
Move cursor to window leftCtrl w, h
Move cursor to window rightCtrl w, l
Move cursor to window aboveCtrl w, k
Move cursor to window belowCtrl w, j
Rotate windows clockwiseCtrl w, r
Move current window to a new tabCtrl w, T
Close all windows except current window:on
Maximize width of active windowCtrl w, |
Minimize width of active windowCtrl w, 1, |
Maximize height of active windowCtrl w, _
Minimize height of active windowCtrl w, 1, _
Equalize the size of windowsCtrl w, =
Vim Commands for Working with Multiple Files
Write (save) the file, but don’t exit:w
Write (save) and quit:wq
Write (save) current file if modified and quit:x OR ZZ
Quit (fails if there are unsaved changes):q
Quit and discard unsaved changes:q!
Quit all buffers and windows:qa
Quit without checking for changesZQ
Vim Commands for Exiting a File

Tmux commands

Default prefix keyCtrl + b
Show time (ESC returns to the terminal)t
Enter a command (Example: “:new-session”):
List all commands that tmux supportslist-commands
Tmux Commands for General
An open command prompt (or pseudo-terminal). Panes may appear side by side or vertically stacked inside a windowPane
Your view of open panesWindow
A set of open windowsSession
The background process that displays your sessionClient
A single server manages all open session (Servers and clients are separate processes that each communicates through a socket in /tmp)Server
Tmux Commands for Tmux Terms
Split screen or pane in half vertically, creating a new pane on the right%
Split screen or pane in half horizontally, creating a new pane at the bottom
Switch to the adjacent pane<arrow key>
Switch to the next paneo
Show pane numbers (when numbers appear, press number to switch to that pane)q
Move current pane to the left{
Move current pane to the right}
Close the current panex
Resize pane in steps of one cellCtrl + <arrow key>
Resize pane in steps of five cellsAlt + <arrow key>
Arrange panes in the even-horizontal preset layoutAlt + 1
Arrange panes in the even-vertical preset layoutAlt + 2
Arrange panes in the main-horizontal preset layoutAlt + 3
Arrange panes in the main-vertical preset layoutAlt + 4
Arrange panes in the tiled preset layoutAlt + 5
Tmux Commands for Creating and Managing Panes
Create a new windowc
Detach pane into a new window!
Switch to the previous window (in order of creation)n
Switch to the next window (in order of creation)p
Switch to the window used most recentlyl
List all windows and their corresponding numbersw
Switch to the corresponding window<window number>
Rename current window,
Display info about the current windowi
Search for text in open windows (ESC exits the search)f
Tmux Commands for Creating and Managing Windows
Create a new sessionnew-session
Rename current session$
List open sessionslist-session
Create a new client and attach it to the specified session (-t target-session)attach-session
Detach clients attached to the current sessiondetach-client-session
Destroy the current or specified sessionkill-session
Tmux Commands for Creating and Managing Sessions

Published by Lisa Turnbull

, always been a Windows lover since her childhood days. I have always been enthusiastic about emerging technologies, especially Artificial Intelligence (AI), Data Science and Machine Learning. I am working as a freelancer on numerous technical projects.