Cisco Certified Network Associate 200-301 CCNA Exam Questions and Answers – Page 6

The latest Cisco Certified Network Associate 200-301 CCNA certification actual real practice exam question and answer (Q&A) dumps are available free, which are helpful for you to pass the Cisco Certified Network Associate 200-301 CCNA exam and earn Cisco Certified Network Associate 200-301 CCNA certification.

Cisco Certified Network Associate 200-301 CCNA Exam Questions and Answers
Cisco Certified Network Associate 200-301 CCNA Exam Questions and Answers

Exam Question 501

Which of the following is NOT a possible component of Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol’s
(EIGRP) composite metric?

A. Cost
B. Load
C. Delay
D. Bandwidth
Correct Answer:
A. Cost
Answer Description:
Cost is not a component of EIGRP’s composite metric. The cost, or efficiency, of a path is used as a metric by the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) routing protocol.

Enhanced IGRP (EIGRP) is Cisco Systems’ proprietary routing protocol. It can use bandwidth, delay, load, reliability, and maximum transmission unit (MTU) to calculate the metric. Of these five metrics, by default, only minimum bandwidth and delay are used to compute the best path.

The metric for EIGRP can be calculated with this formula:
Metric = [K1 * Bandwidth + (K2 * Bandwidth) / (256-load) + K3*Delay] * [K5 / (reliability + K4)]

The default constant values for Cisco routers are K1 = 1, K3 = 1, and K2 = 0, K4 = 0, K5 = 0. In the default setting, K1 and K3 have non-zero values, and therefore, by default, the metric is dependent on bandwidth and delay.

Exam Question 502

Which show interfaces command output indicates that the link may not be functional due to a Data Link
layer issue, while the Physical layer is operational?

A. Ethernet 0/0 is up, line protocol is up
B. Ethernet 0/0 is up, line protocol is down
C. Ethernet 0/0 is down, line protocol is up
D. Ethernet 0/0 is down, line protocol is down
Correct Answer:
B. Ethernet 0/0 is up, line protocol is down
Answer Description:
The first or left-hand column (Ethernet 0/0 is up) indicates the Physical layer state of the interface, while the second or right-hand column (line protocol is down) indicates the Data Link layer state of the interface. The following command output excerpt indicates that the link is not functional due to a Data Link layer (or “line protocol”) issue, while the Physical layer is operational:

Ethernet 0/0 is up, line protocol is down

If the problem were at the Data Link layer while the Physical layer is operational, the show interfaces command output will indicate that the interface is up, but the line protocol is down.

In the normal operation mode, when both Physical layer and Data Link layer are up, the show interfaces output will display the following message:

Ethernet0/0 is up, line protocol is up

The message Ethernet 0/0 is down, line protocol is up is not a valid output.

The message Ethernet 0/0 is down, line protocol is down indicates that both the Physical layer and the Data Link layer are down. Therefore, this is an incorrect option.

Exam Question 503

Which Cisco Internetwork Operating System (IOS) command is used to view the number of Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) packets that are sent and received?

A. show eigrp neighbors
B. show ip eigrp interfaces
C. show ip eigrp packets
D. show ip eigrp traffic
E. show ip route
F. show ip eigrp topology
Correct Answer:
D. show ip eigrp traffic
Answer Description:
The show ip eigrp traffic command is used to view the number of EIGRP packets that are sent and received. The syntax of the command is: Router# show ip eigrp traffic [autonomous-system-number]

The autonomous-system-number parameter is optional. The output of the command is as follows:
Router# show ip eigrp traffic
IP-EIGRP Traffic Statistics for process 78
Hellos sent/received: 2180/2005
Updates sent/received: 70/21
Queries sent/received: 3/1
Replies sent/received: 0/3
Acks sent/received: 22/11

The show ip eigrp neighbors command is incorrect because it does not show the number of packets sent or received. It does show IP addresses of the devices with which the router has established an adjacency, as well as the retransmit interval and the queue count for each neighbor, as shown below:
Router# show ip eigrp neighbors
IP-EIGRP Neighbors for process 49
Address Interface Holdtime Uptime Q Seq SRTT RTO
(secs) (h:m:s) Count Num (ms) (ms)
146.89.81.28 Ethernet1 13 0:00:41 0 11 4 20
146.89.80.28 Ethernet0 12 0:02:01 0 10 12 24
146.89.80.31 Ethernet0 11 0:02:02 0 4 5 20

The show ip eigrp interfaces command is incorrect because this command is used to view information about the interfaces configured for EIGRP.

The show ip eigrp packets command is incorrect because it is not a valid Cisco IOS commands.

The show ip route command will not display EIGRP packets that are sent and received. It is used to view the routing table. When connectivity problems occur between subnets, this is the logical first command to execute. Routers must have routes to successfully send packets to remote subnets. Using this command is especially relevant when the underlying physical connection to the remote network has been verified as functional, but routing is still not occurring.

The show ip eigrp topology command is incorrect because it does not show the number of packets sent or received. This command displays all successor and feasible successor routes (if they exist) to each network. If you are interested in that information for only a specific destination network, you can specify that as shown in the output below. When you do, the command output displays all possible routes, including those that are not feasible successors:

When you do, the command output displays all possible routes, including those that are not feasible successors.

In the above output, four routers are providing a route to the network specified in the command. However, only one of the submitted routes satisfies the feasibility test. This test dictates that to be a feasible successor, the advertised distance of the route must be less than the feasible distance of the current successor route.

The current successor route has a FD of 41152000, as shown in the first section of the output. In the values listed for each of the four submitted routes, the first number is the feasible distance and the second is the advertised distance. Only the route received from 10.0.0.2 (second section) with FD/AD values of 53973240/120256 satisfies this requirement, and thus this route is the only feasible successor route present in the topology table for the network specified in the command.

Exam Question 504

Which of the following statements is true with regard to SDN?

A. It combines the control plane and the data plane
B. It separates the data plane and the forwarding plan
C. It implements the control plane as software
D. It implements the data plane as software
Correct Answer:
C. It implements the control plane as software
Answer Description:
In Software-defined networking (SDN), the control plane is separated from the data (or forwarding) plane and is implemented through software. The data plane remains on each physical device but the control plane is managed centrally for all devices though software.

SDN does not combine the data and control plane. Instead it decouples them.

SDN does not separate the data plane and the forwarding plan. These are both names for the same plane; that is, a data plane is a forwarding plane.

SDN does not implement the data plane as software. The data plane remains on each physical device.

Exam Question 505

Which of the following items are NOT required to match for two routers to form an OSPF adjacency?

A. Area IDs
B. Hello/Dead timers
C. Passwords (if OSPF authentication has been configured)
D. Process IDs
Correct Answer:
D. Process IDs
Answer Description:
All of the listed items must match except for the process IDs. The process IDs are locally significant, which keeps multiple instances of OSPF separate on a router, and do not need to match between neighboring routers for the adjacency to form. Process identifiers can be valued from 1 to 65535.

Adjacencies must be formed before routing updates can be exchanged. OSPF routers will form neighbor adjacencies on common subnets if the following three items match:

  • Area IDs
  • Hello/Dead timers
  • Passwords (if OSPF authentication has been configured)

Once an adjacency has been formed it will be maintained by the exchange of Hello messages. On a broadcast medium like Ethernet, they will be sent every 10 seconds. On point-to-point links, they will be sent every 30 seconds.

The show ip ospf interface interface number command can be used to display the state of the DR/BDR election process.

Consider the following output:
The show ip ospf interface interface number command can be used to display the state of the DR/BDR election process.

The timer intervals’ configured output reveals that RouterA is showing a Hello timer of 10 seconds and a Dead timer of 40 seconds. RouterB has a Hello timer of 30 seconds and a Dead timer of 60 seconds. Hello/ Dead timers have to match before OSPF routers will form an adjacency. If you executed the debug ip ospf events command on one of the routers, the router at serial /01 will not form a neighbor relationship because of mismatched hello parameters:

RouterA# debug ip ospf events
OSPF events debugging is on
RouterA#
*Nov 9 05:41:21.456:OSPF:Rcv hello from 10.16.2.3 area 0 from Serial0/1
192.168.35.1
*Nov 9 05:41:21.698:OSPF:Mismatched hello parameters from
192.168.35.1

Hellos are used to establish neighbor adjacencies with other routers. On a point-to-point network, hello packets are sent to the multicast address 224.0.0.5, which is also known as the ALLSPFRouters address.

Area IDs have to match for OSPF routers to form an adjacency. Both of these routers have the interface correctly configured in matching Area 0.

The interface priorities do not have to match for OSPF routers to form an adjacency. Interface priorities can be configured to control which OSPF router becomes the designated router (DR) or backup designated router (BDR) on a multi-access network segment.

Exam Question 506

You have been assigned a network ID of 172.16.0.0/26. If you utilize the first network resulting from this ID, what would be the last legitimate host address in this subnet?

A. 172.16.0.64
B. 172.16.0.63
C. 172.16.0.62
D. 172.16.0.65
Correct Answer:
C. 172.16.0.62
Answer Description:
When a class B address such as 172.16.0.0 is subnetted with a /26 mask, the subnet mask in dotted decimal format is 255.255.255.192. This means that the interval between the network IDs of the resulting subnets is 64. The resulting network IDs are as follows:

172.16.0.0
172.16.0.64
172.16.0.128
172.16.0.192
172.16.1.0
and so on.

For the network ID 172.16.0.0, the last address in the range is 172.16.0.63, which is the broadcast address. Neither the network ID nor the broadcast address for any subnet can be assigned to computers. This means that the addresses that can actually be assigned range from 172.16.0.1 to 172.16.0.62. The last legitimate host address, therefore, is 172.16.0.62.

172.16.0.63 cannot be used because it is the broadcast address for the 172.16.0.0 network.

172.16.0.64 is the network ID for the 172.16.0.64 network, and 172.16.0.65 is the first address in the second network.

Exam Question 507

Which of the following statements are TRUE regarding EIGRP operation? (Choose two.)

A. A successor is a backup route, and is installed in both the routing and topology tables.
B. A successor is a primary route, and is installed in both the routing and topology tables.
C. A successor is a primary route, and is installed only in the routing table.
D. A feasible successor is a backup route, and is installed in both the routing and topology tables.
E. A feasible successor is a primary route, and is only installed in the routing table.
F. A feasible successor is a backup route, and is only installed in the topology table.
G. If the successor route fails and no feasible successor route exists, the router will send an update with
the route marked with an unreachable metric of 16.
Correct Answer:
B. A successor is a primary route, and is installed in both the routing and topology tables.
F. A feasible successor is a backup route, and is only installed in the topology table.
Answer Description:
In EIGRP operations, primary or active routes are known as successors. These routes are maintained in both the routing and topology tables. The routing table is the list of network paths that are currently used by the router.

EIGRP also has the ability to maintain backup routes to destination networks. These backup routes are known as feasible successors. If a feasible successor is discovered by EIGRP, it will be maintained only in the topology table, since it is not currently being used to route traffic. In the event of a successor failure, the backup feasible successor will become the successor, and will be installed in the routing table automatically. If the successor route fails and no feasible successor route exists, the router will send queries to all neighbors until a new successor is found.

EIGRP maintains three dynamic tables in RAM:

  • Neighbor table, which is a list of all neighboring EIGRP routers on shared subnets
  • Topology table, which contains all discovered network paths in the internetwork
  • Routing table, which contains the best path (based on lowest metric) to each destination network

A successor is not a backup route. A successor is a primary or active route, and it is stored in both the routing and topology tables.

A feasible successor is not a primary route. It is a backup route, and it is stored only in the topology table.

If the successor route fails and no feasible successor route exists, the router will not send an update with the route marked with an unreachable metric of 16. EIGRP does not send an update with the route marked with an unreachable metric, and even if it did, 16 is not an unreachable metric in EIGRP as it is in RIP. Instead it sends a multicast query packet to all adjacent neighbors requesting available routing paths to the destination network.

Exam Question 508

You recently implemented SNMPv3 to increase the security of your network management system. A partial output of the show run command displays the following output that relates to SNMP:
<output omitted>
snmp-server group TECHS v3 noauth read TECHS write TECHS
Which of the following statements is true of this configuration?

A. It provides encryption, but it does not provide authentication
B. It provides neither authentication nor encryption
C. It provides authentication, but it does not provide encryption
D. It provides both authentication and encryption
Correct Answer:
B. It provides neither authentication nor encryption
Answer Description:
It provides neither authentication nor encryption. In SMNPv3, there are three combinations of security that can be used:

  • noAuthNoPriv- no authentication and no encryption; includes the noauth keyword in the configuration
  • AuthNoPriv – messages are authenticated but not encrypted; includes the auth keyword in the configuration
  • AuthPriv – messages are authenticated and encrypted; includes the priv keyword in the configuration

In this case, the keyword noauth in the configuration indicates that no authentication and no encryption are provided. This makes the implementation no more secure than SNMPv1 or SNMPv2.

In SNMPv1 and SNMPv2, authentication is performed using a community string. When you implement SNMP using the noauth keyword, it does not use community strings for authentication. Instead it uses the configured user or group name (in this case TECHS). Regardless, it does not provide either authentication or encryption.

Exam Question 509

You are the network administrator for your company. You want to upgrade the network, which is currently running on IPv4, to a fully functional IPv6 network. During the transition, you want to ensure that hosts capable only of IPv6 can communicate with hosts capable only of IPv4 on the network.
Which solution should you implement to accomplish the task in this scenario?

A. IPv6 over IPv4 tunnels
B. IPv6 over dedicated Wide Area Network (WAN) links
C. Dual-Stack Backbones
D. Protocol translation
Correct Answer:
D. Protocol translation
Answer Description:
The protocol translation deployment model should be used to accomplish the task in this scenario. It is the only offered solution that does not require at least one end of the communication solution to support both IPv6 and IPv4.

The following deployment models are available for IPv4 to IPv6 migration:

  • IPv6 over IPv4 tunnels: IPv6 traffic is encapsulated into IPv4 packets. Then these packets are transferred over IPv4 WAN. This model eliminates the need to create separate circuits to connect to the IPv6 networks. This model increases protocol overhead because of the IPv6 headers and requires the edge router at each end be capable of both protocols.
  • Protocol translation: A method allowing an IPv6 host to communicate with an IPv4 host. This is accomplished with the help of Network Address Translation – Protocol Translation (NAT-PT) used to configure translation between IPv6 and IPv4 hosts. NAT-PT allows communication between IPv6 hosts and applications, and native IPv4 hosts and applications.
  • IPv6 over dedicated WAN links: A new deployment of IPv6 is created. In this model, IPv6 hierarchy, addressing, and protocols are used by all nodes. However, this model involves cost for creating IPv6 WAN circuits. This solution is not designed for LAN translation but rather communication over WAN links.
  • Dual-Stack Backbones: A hybrid model in which backbone routers have dual-stack functionality, which enables them to route both IPv4 and IPv6 packets. It is suitable for an enterprise that uses both IPv4 and IPv6 applications. Running IPv6 and IPv4 together in a network is known as dual-stack routing.

Exam Question 510

You need to manually assign IPv6 addresses to the interfaces on an IPv6-enabled router. While assigning addresses, you need to ensure that the addresses participate in neighbor discovery and in stateless autoconfiguration process on a physical link.
Which of the following addresses can be assigned to the interfaces?

A. FEC0:0:0:1::1/64
B. FE80::260:3EFF:FE11:6770/10
C. 2001:0410:0:1:0:0:0:1/64
D. 2002:500E:2301:1:20D:BDFF:FE99:F559/64
Correct Answer:
B. FE80::260:3EFF:FE11:6770/10
Answer Description:
The FE80::260:3EFF:FE11:6770/10 address can be assigned to an interface of the IPv6-enabled router. This address is a link-local address as it has the prefix FE80::/10. Link-local addresses can be configured for an interface either automatically or manually.

Link-local addresses are IPv6 unicast addresses that are configured on the interfaces of an IPv6-enabled router. With link-local addresses, the nodes can connect to a network (local link) and communicate with other nodes. In addition, these addresses participate in the neighbor discovery protocol and the stateless auto-configuration process.

The FEC0:0:0:1::1/64 address should not be used for the interfaces because this address is a site-local address. Site-local addresses are IPv6 equivalent addresses to IPv4’s private address classes. These addresses are available only within a site or an intranet, which typically is made of several network links.

You should not use the 2001:0410:0:1:0:0:0:1/64 and 2002:500E:2301:1:20D:BDFF:FE99:F559 addresses for the interfaces. These two addresses are global unicast addresses as they fall in the range from 2000::/3 and to E000::/3. A global address is used on links that connect organizations to the Internet service providers (ISPs).