Comparison of Distributed Ledger Technologies (DLT): Blockchain, Hashgraph, DAG and Holochain

Comparison of 4 Distributed Ledger Technologies (DLT): Blockchain, Hashgraphy, DAG and Holochain from the perspective of mining, transactions per second, data structure, validation of transactions, time of launch and network running on platform.

Comparison of 4 Distributed Ledger Technologies (DLT): Blockchain, Hashgraphy, DAG and Holochain
Comparison of 4 Distributed Ledger Technologies (DLT): Blockchain, Hashgraphy, DAG and Holochain


Mining: Participants have the ability to mint new tokens via different consensus mechanisms.

Transactions per second: Highly limited in terms of scalability and TPS.

Data structure: Data structured in blocks in order of transactions which are validated by miners in the ecosystem.

Validation of transactions: Miners have the power to postpone a transaction or cancel it entirely.

Time of launch: Went public in 2008

Network running on platform: Bitcoin and Ethereum are the most popular networks built on blockchain.


Mining: Nodes create consensus through Virtual Voting.

Transactions per second: Unique consensus mechanisms reduce computational burden hence high scalability and high TPS.

Data structure: Virtual voting and Gossip about Gossip ensures that transactions are validated by the majority.

Validation of transactions: Validation of transactions is as per consensus.

Time of launch: Available for public use of August 24 2018.

Network running on platform: Swirlds and NOIA are the only networks on Hashgraph.

Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG)

Mining: The previous transaction validates the succeeding to achieve consensus.

Transactions per second: Unique data structure via directed acyclic graphs ensures that scalability and TPS are high.

Data structure: Data structure follows the directed acyclic graph mechanism where each transaction is independent.

Validation of transactions: The success of present transaction relies on its ability to validate two previous transactions.

Time of launch: NXT is the first platform utilizing DAG and it came out on November 9, 2015.

Network running on platform: NXT, Tangle and ByteBall are the most popular networks using DAG foundation.


Mining: Nodes run on individual chains hence miners not needed to validate transactions.

Transactions per second: Each node processes its own ledger hence limitless scalability and TPS

Data structure: Data is distributed among various nodes on the platform hence there is no problem of network congestion.

Validation of transactions: Nodes process their own ledgers hence there is no need for miners.

Time of launch: Alpha 1 product released on May 26, 2018.

Network running on platform: Holochain network is the best-known network on this platform.

Published by Thomas Apel

, a dynamic and self-motivated information technology architect, with a thorough knowledge of all facets pertaining to system and network infrastructure design, implementation and administration. I enjoy the technical writing process and answering readers' comments included.