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Common Technical Interview Questions and Answers Update on July 30, 2021

Exam Question 41

Your development team only needs to provision virtual machines during the work week while they are testing out new code. What is the best way to reduce costs when the VMs are not being used?

A. Just allow everything to run, because the costs will be lower when the virtual machines are not doing anything.
B. Delete virtual machines when they are not being used and then recreate them at the beginning of the week.
C. Deallocate virtual machines during the weekends.
Correct Answer:
C. Deallocate virtual machines during the weekends.
Answer Description:
In this case, the hard drives and data are kept alive, and networking and CPU costs stop. You could delete them, but you would have to spend time and resources backing them up and then re-creating them when they are required. If you just let them run, the meter would continue to run for network traffic and disk operations.

Exam Question 42

Why might you decouple the IP address from a component?

A. You can improve security.
B. If a service goes down, you can move the address to a new component.
C. You can reduce the cost of managing IP addresses.
D. You can simplify alerting infrastructure.
Correct Answer:
B. If a service goes down, you can move the address to a new component.
Answer Description:
An elastic IP address makes it easier to move IP addresses to a new component or service in the event of failure or when scaling. Elastic IP addresses are not directly used for security or alerting.

Exam Question 43

Your team has determined that six instances of a server can meet performance requirements under normal and heavy conditions. What is the best architecture to ensure efficient high availability if one availability zone goes down?

A. Deploy on six servers in one availability zone.
B. Deploy on 12 servers in one availability zone.
C. Deploy on six servers across two availability zones.
D. Deploy on 12 servers across two availability zones.
Correct Answer:
C. Deploy on six servers across two availability zones.
Answer Description:
Deploy the service on six servers across two availability zones. The key is high availability. If one availability zone goes down, it will still be available, although it will run a bit slower. In the first two cases, if an availability zone goes down, all services are lost. In the last case, it may be more performant in the event of a failure, but it would also incur an additional ongoing cost.

Exam Question 44

Your team has determined that six instances of a server can meet performance requirements under normal and heavy conditions. What is the best architecture to ensure efficient fault tolerance if one availability zone goes down?

A. Deploy on six servers in one availability zone.
B. Deploy on 12 servers in one availability zone.
C. Deploy on six servers across two availability zones.
D. Deploy on 12 servers across two availability zones.
Correct Answer:
D. Deploy on 12 servers across two availability zones.
Answer Description:
Deploy the service on 12 services across two availability zones. The key is fault tolerance, which implies no degradation in performance in the event of a failure. If one availability zone goes down, the systems will suffer a performance degradation since only three servers will be available. In the first two cases, if an availability zone goes down, all services are lost. In the last case, it may be more performant in the event of a failure, but it would also incur an additional ongoing cost.

Exam Question 45

Which is the best file storage option for sharing the same the same PDF file to millions of users?

A. Amazon Elastic Block Store (EBS) Cold HDD volumes
B. Amazon S3
C. Amazon Glacier
D. Amazon S3 Infrequent Access
Correct Answer:
B. Amazon S3
Answer Description:
Amazon S3 is the cheapest and most practical option since it works independent of an instance. EBS adds additional load to the web server and costs more. Glacier has a long ramp-up time and is not suitable for file storage. Amazon S3 Infrequent Access has a lower storage cost but increased retrieval cost.

Exam Question 46

In which case would you not choose Amazon Relational Database Service?

A. Support for complex transactions
B. Need for high durability
C. Need to support relational database management system (RDBMS) customization
D. Need for complex queries
Correct Answer:
C. Need to support relational database management system (RDBMS) customization
Answer Description:
RDS supports all of the other requirements.

Exam Question 47

What service is best used for caching static objects shared across geographies?

A. Amazon S3
B. Amazon Glacier
C. Amazon CloudFront
D. Memcached
Correct Answer:
C. Amazon CloudFront
Answer Description:
Although S3 could be used for caching static objects, CloudFront is cheaper. Glacier is the cheapest but is much slower. Memcached is another cache but is better suited for dynamic data.

Exam Question 48

An application running on EC2 needs to access a bucket in S3. What is the easiest way to provide secure access to the bucket?

A. Use the S3 bucket policies to make the bucket public, but don’t publicize it anywhere.
B. Store the access key on the EC2 instance in ‘$HOME/.aws/secureaccess.’
C. Create an Identity and Access Management (IAM) role for the application with a policy that grants access to the S3 bucket.
D. Store the access key on the EC2 instance in a file called ‘credentials.’
Correct Answer:
C. Create an Identity and Access Management (IAM) role for the application with a policy that grants access to the S3 bucket.
Answer Description:
Create an IAM role for the application with a policy. The other options are simpler but run the risk of allowing hackers to access the data as well.

Exam Question 49

What kind of metrics can CloudWatch not use to automate scaling?

A. CPU usage
B. Queue size
C. Memory usage
D. Network usage
Correct Answer:
C. Memory usage
Answer Description:
CloudWatch cannot monitor memory usage.

Exam Question 50

A business runs a website that normally meets service-level requirements with three EC2 instances. It runs a special sale every day at 5 p.m. just as people are getting off work, which generates a large spike in traffic that requires nine EC2 instances for a half-hour. What is the most cost-effective way to meet these requirements?

A. Create an Auto Scaling group with a minimum capacity of three, and scale up based on queue size.
B. Create an Auto Scaling group with a minim capacity of nine at all times.
C. Create an Auto Scaling group with a minimum capacity of three, and scale up based on CPU usage.
D. Create an Auto Scaling group with a minimum capacity of three, and set a schedule to scale up at 4:50 p.m.
Correct Answer:
D. Create an Auto Scaling group with a minimum capacity of three, and set a schedule to scale up at 4:50 p.m.
Answer Description:
Create an Auto Scaling group based on a schedule to be prepared for the spike in traffic. Although options A and C will scale up after the spike hits, customers will suffer a reduction in performance in the beginning of the spike. Option B will come at a significantly increased cost.

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